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iGEM2020全チームプロジェクト概要 ~第一弾~

本記事では、iGEM 2020年に参加した全チームのプロジェクトについてまとめた記事の第一弾になります。(全4回を予定しています)。
iGEM 2020では、どのようなテーマがあったのか網羅的にわかるようになっておりますので、ざっと眺めて見てはいかがでしょうか。

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[翻訳版] iGEM2020全チームプロジェクト概要 ~第一弾~

※本まとめは、全てのデータをiGEM2020のオープンなデータから取得しております。

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このような構成で、全チームをまとめていきます。

チームリスト


OUC-China
Title
Logitch: Logic Gates and RNA Switch

Abstract
 In the future, more work must be done by computer, such as detecting virus and monitoring health in vivo. Such a function can only be achieved by biological computer working in wet environment, which plays an important role that traditional computer cannot replace. Since the basic function unit of electronic computer is implemented through logic gates, we incorporated a series of logic gates which were built by toehold and 3WJ repressor, and supplemented current lack of types with our own design. We also built more complex multi-input logic gates using basic logic gates. In order to show the wide application prospect of these logic gates, we used them in the construction of adder and subtractor, as well as virus detection. Biocomputer may have various possibilities in the next few years, and we hope our project can have some impact on its development.
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BNDS_China
Title
BACLOTH

Abstract
Wild animal’s leathers have great values for the clothing and fashion industry. Some luxury products like crocodile bag even require leather from rare species. This profitable business drives poachers to illegally hunt and hurt those wild animals. The demands of leather put the wild animals in a dangerous place and the harms caused by poaching for species conservation is unthinkable. Therefore, we aimed to integrate bacterial cellulose and protein crosslinking to manufacture artificial leather for animal conservation. Specifically, we utilized G. xylinus to synthesize bacterial cellulose. Moreover, we engineered E. coli and P. Pastoris to purify collagen-like protein and spider fibroin with SpyCatcher003 and SpyTag003 for protein crosslinking. This synthetic biological method provides an alternative way to supply raw material for leather industry, while ensuring animal and environment conversation.
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XJTU-China
Title
Sand Fixers Alliance

Abstract
 Upon the excessive deforestation, grazing and reclamation of human beings, desertification has been intensified. A natural sand-fixing system, biological soil crusts, was discovered to fight for desertification. But this natural sand fixation strategy always has little effect when facing the aggressive sand. Thus in our project, an engineered Bacillus subtilis was constructed to effectively produce extracellular polysaccharide, the key component of soil crust via introducing different combinations of key enzymes GalU and PGM. An arabinose-regulated suicide switch was also build to initiate suicide once the engineered bacteria release from the desert environment for biosafety. Furthermore, a symbiotic system of engineered Bacillus subtilis and cyanobacteria was developed to form sand fixers alliance, fighting for desertification. Our project is committed to educating the public about the current situation, hazards and solutions of desertification, and to providing a more convenient and effective strategy for desertification control.
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XMU-China
Title
Antea-Glyphosate

Abstract
Tea is deeply rooted in Chinese culture. For a long period, a large amount of glyphosate has been used as a herbicide, which raises a severe problem of pesticide residues in tea food. XMU-China aims at developing an efficient glyphosate detection and degradation system.For the detection system, glyphosate is degraded by several enzymes and then transferred into a measurable fluorescence signal caused by the NADPH; and the degradation system plans to disintegrate glyphosate to be AMPA to minimize the toxicity. Two suicide switches controlled by different inducers are also projected.It is hoped that this project could provide new ideas for the detection and degradation of pesticide residues. Taking care of the earth by tiny bacteria, we here promise a better future of tea.
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SCUT_China
Title
LyDT Phage

Abstract
In this project, we show that a specific gene in the genome of the lytic P. aeruginosa phage vB_PaeM_SCUT-S1 (S1) can be engineered by a CRISPR-Cas editing strategy based on a two-plasmid system, in which the first plasmid expresses a Cas nuclease and recombinases (λ-red), the second plasmid harbors a crRNA cassette and a repair template. Briefly, we constructed a lysis-deficient phage mutant (LyDT S1) expressing the antibacterial toxin RelE. The mutant was obtained by replacing the gene of holin, a lysis-promoting phage toxin, with the relE gene, which can still inhibit bacterial growth through the expression of RelE but cannot induce cell lysis because the holin gene is eliminated. This is expected to reduce the amount of endotoxins released from the bacteria, with a corresponding reduction of systemic cytokine response and inflammation during bacterial infection.
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NJU-China
Title
ExosomeBomb SiRNA

Abstract
siRNAs offer an opportunity to specifically target mRNAs and modulate the expression of therapeutic targets which can facilitate cancer treatment. Here, we designed composable and programmable genetic circuits that used the liver as a tissue chassis to direct the self-assembly of exogenous siRNAs into secretory exosomes. The circuits include core parts which expressed siRNAs that not only inhibit the cancer cells, but also remove the disguise cancer use to evade the immune system; enhancing parts which facilitated the production of more anti-cancer exosomses, and guidance parts which directed the exosome to target cancer cells. Taken together, the genetic parts assembled into anti-tumor exosomes, secreted into circulation, delivered to cancer cells and eliminate them. The strategy provided a controllable, efficient and convenient cancer treatment which may even provide a personalized treatment strategy that can address a broad range of problems in biomedicine.
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USTC-Software
Title
Protein molecular simulation toolchain

Abstract
We gather some molecular simulation software tools like pyDTI, building up an easy-to-use and out-of-box web platform, to provide a molecular simulation toolchain, and find out the possibility to combine these classic molecular simulation tools and current cloud platform technology, such as containering and distributed computation, to allow our platform to serve not certain one, but a large amount of researchers.
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Hannover
Title
InToSens – Development of an Inflammatory Toxin Sensor for detecting implant associated inflammations

Abstract
The placement of implants is one of the most frequently performed operations in hospitals all over the world, still increasing in number. Unfortunately, the risk to develop an implant-associated inflammation after such surgeries is very high. The origin of an implant-associated inflammation is often biofilms, which attach to the implant surface. Targeted treatment of such bacterial biofilms is challenging. A typical therapeutic approach with antibiotics often fails. In the worst case, a generous removal of the region is mandatory. Therefore, it would be helpful to detect the formation of a biofilm at an early stage, increasing the probability of successful treatment. Our project aims to develop a sensor that makes this possible. The sensor is realized by genetically-engineered cells, which can recognize bacterial toxins and produce biomarkers as a response. Throughout the development, we looked at our project from different points of view in conjunction with social and ethical aspects. 
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UTTyler
Title
Diagnosis of viral infections using photonics and biomolecular techniques

Abstract
Viral diseases are common to have a long incubation period with mild symptoms while carriers can still spread these pathogens via airborne transmission. These properties lead to a critical challenge in preventing the spread of these diseases. Potentially, routine diagnosis of the entire population can identify all virus carriers to block transmission. However, advanced equipment and skills are required for most diagnostic methods, making it difficult to frequently test all individuals in our society. To address this problem, we propose to develop a diagnostic platform that allows users to perform testing at home on a daily basis. Our approach involves using cellular techniques to generate probes for recognizing viral genomes and using photonics technologies to monitor association between our probes and viral DNA. We anticipate that a test will only take a short period of time and it can be easily performed by all users.
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Manchester
Title
HippoSol – The sunscreen for the future

Abstract
Regular unprotected exposure to the sun can result in multiple skin disorders, including skin cancer. Skin cancer is the fifth most common type of cancer in the UK, yet 60% of cases are preventable. Sunscreens are therefore important to use, but when used while swimming in the sea, conventional sunscreen ingredients cause oxidative stress on coral reefs, resulting in serious coral bleaching. Our team aims to produce a novel non-toxic, bactericidal, mammal-derived broad-spectrum UV filter to address this problem. Our target compound polymerises naturally into an unreactive molecule minimising environmental effects. Our goal is to produce the novel sunscreen in bacteria, as a reef-safe alternative to commercially available sunscreens. We use innovative retrosynthesis methods to design a biosynthetic pathway to our target compound and utilise techniques like entrepreneurship, stakeholder engagement, and media analysis to ensure that our product meets an urgent real-world need in a safe and responsible way.
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Nanjing-China
Title
PolyP Pro

Abstract
There are many problems with synthetic chemical materials, such as the contamination and safety risks in production process. By means of Synthetic Biology, we hope to biosynthesis the inorganic material polyphosphates, which is commonly used in chemistry, with biomolecular proteins in order to obtain a new environmental friendly material, which not only maintains the original function of the biomolecule but also optimize its chemical properties.
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Leiden
Title
Rapidemic: A novel modular point-of-care diagnostic tool for rapid epidemic response

Abstract
This year’s COVID-19 outbreak demonstrated how the world is impacted by a pandemic, causing over one million deaths worldwide and severely damaging the quality of life of billions. Rapid diagnostics are vital to keep an outbreak under control and reduce the need for disrupting measures. Here, we present an innovative, modular technique called Rapidemic that allows for the rapid detection of nucleic acids of pathogenic species in a future outbreak. By combining targeted amplification (RPA), nickase-based GQ DNAzyme generation (LSDA), and DNAzyme-catalyzed oxidation, our method reliably and rapidly detects pathogenic DNA or RNA and provides the user with a simple colorimetric output. Because it does not require a lab or external power source, our technology enables point-of-care testing in both high- and low-resource areas. This way, Rapidemic offers a global solution to a global problem and allows us to be one step ahead in tackling Disease X!
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Rochester
Title
Creation of a Novel, Noninvasive Diagnostic for Endometriosis using Menstrual Effluent

Abstract
The 2020 University of Rochester iGEM Team, Team UteRus, created a novel, non-invasive diagnostic for endometriosis using menstrual effluent (ME). Endometriosis is a chronic disease, affecting 200 million women worldwide, that causes abnormal endometrial-like tissue growth outside of the uterine cavity. The only diagnostic available is exploratory surgery. Our team created lateral flow immunoassays (LFA) that can qualitatively and quantitatively measure the presence of endometriosis biomarkers in ME and built a model to optimize the assay design. Using a Plug and Play approach, our team designed plasmids for antibody production in SHuffle stain Escherichia coli and reduced the cost of our diagnostic. Additionally, we created menstrual cups best suited for the comfort of endometriosis patients as well as inexpensive laboratory equipment for clinics without laboratory access. Our team also built a predictive model that we integrated into a software tool as an endometriosis diagnostic based solely on clinical variables. 
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USAFA
Title
Detection and Degradation of Perfluoroalkyl Substances through Bioengineering

Abstract
Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) contaminate public ground and surface waters, posing serious threats to wildlife and human health. Despite the ubiquitous nature of these compounds, there are limited technologies available to both detect and degrade these chemicals. To address this urgent need, the US Air Force Academy iGEM team engineered a novel PFAS responsive promoter to act as an efficient bioreporter for rapid detection of PFAS. Concurrently, the team screened PFAS-laden soil samples and identified several microbes that survive in high concentrations of PFAS. Delftia acidovorans, one of the microbes identified, contains the genes for several dehalogenases with potential activity to break down PFAS compounds. Alternate vectors and organisms for dehalogenase expression are being explored to determine maximum efficiency at removing fluorine ions from the PFAS carbon-fluorine backbone. Collaboration with water treatment experts and military research labs provides a multi-faceted attack on the PFAS issue.
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Lethbridge_HS
Title
tPectinACE: Targeting Pectin to Accelerate Compost Enzymatically

Abstract
Landfills are growing and a large portion of the items occupying this landfill space is food waste. When food waste enters landfills, there are a variety of environmental consequences. This is due to the copious amounts of greenhouse gases emitted during the production of our food. Additionally, food shipping utilizes cardboard and plastic for shipping, which harms our environment significantly. Although food waste disposal services are available, they release methane and are not economically productive. Furthermore, composting facilities do assist in combating the issue of food waste but are oftentimes not readily available or advertised. While some do have access to home composting, this is an inefficient method of reducing food waste and may attract pests. Therefore, we propose a system that employs an engineered biological catalyst that breaks down food waste in a closed container, keeping animals out and ensuring chemicals do not enter the environment. 
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NEFU_China
Title
Bio-optical Landmine Detection

Abstract
Currently, at least 110 million landmines are still buried in the field worldwide. These landmines cause not only tens of thousands of human casualties each year, but also serious environmental pollution. To help deminers detect landmines in a fast and safe way, our team designed a bio-optical landmine detection device. We engineered an E. coli strain harboring a gene circuit to sense the dinitrotoluene (DNT), a typical chemical released by landmines. DNT can trigger the bioluminescence generation module in our engineered bacteria, and emitted optical signal can be captured and converted to digital output by the device, which is uploaded to an on-site computer. Through data processing, we will be able to create a probabilistic heat map of the landmines in a particular area. Eventually, an optimized landmine clearance route can be proposed to assist manual landmine detection with a minimal risk of deminers' injury.
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NWU-CHINA-A
Title
Avenger assemble

Abstract
The rising risk of severe side-effects and potential resistance of antibiotics have limited their usage. Moreover, non-biodegradable medical product loaded antibiotic is one of global pollutions. To solve these problems, our team aimed to design a medical dressing based on novel human defensins (HBDs) and polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) from micro-organisms. HBDs, kinds of novel antimicrobial peptide (AMP) from human, which has excellent blood compatibility and effective anti-bacteria without drug resistance and immunogenicity. In order to combine HBDs on the surface of flexible PHA film in vitro, we built a fusion protein by using a natural PHA surface binding protein (PhaP). All parts of the completely biodegradable medical dressing, including HBDs, PHA and PhaP, are designed and produced in engineering bacteria. We hope that the combination of HBDs and PHA could boost the persistent anti-bacteria and histocompatibility of adhesive bandages. Besides, implementing the concept to medical field would be our future jobs.
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TAS_Taipei
Title
Viral Spiral: An Accurate, Fast and Simple Viral Diagnostic Test

Abstract
Seasonal flu and pandemics, which account for millions of infections and hundreds of thousands of deaths, require rapid and reliable detection mechanisms to implement preventive and therapeutic measures. Current detection methods of viral infections have limitations in speed, accuracy, accessibility, and usability. This project presents a novel, widely applicable viral diagnostic test that uses a modified version of rolling circle amplification (RCA) to be sensitive, specific, direct RNA targeted, colorimetric and operable at room temperature. We are specifically detecting the following high-impact viruses: SARS-CoV-2, Influenza A (H1N1pdm09), and Influenza B (Victoria Lineage), although our test can be adapted to any viral infection. Results using synthetic viral DNA and RNA sequences show that our diagnostic test takes approximately one hour, detects femtomolar concentrations of RNA strands, and differentiates between virus strains. We believe implementing our diagnostic test will provide faster responses to future viral-related outbreaks for quicker societal recovery.
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UiOslo_Norway
Title
Sal.Coli - A detection system and approach for treating amoebic gill disease

Abstract
The biological and environmental concerns that the aquaculture industry faces require innovation in both detection and treatment of disease in fish. Among these is amoebic gill disease caused by Paramoeba perurans affecting Atlantic salmon. Paramoeba perurans is a parasite that latches onto the gills of salmon and causes discomfort and possibly death by reducing the respirational surface area on the gills. Our project aims to create an automatic detection system. To create this system we are investigating collective behaviors and how one can use them to diagnose diseases. We also aim to use genetically modified Escherichia coli to produce salinomycin, an antiparasitic compound. The gene cluster for salinomycin production will be transferred into E. coli step by step, with the goal to provide an alternative route to production of this compound. We hope that our system will complement current diagnostic tools and treatments used in aquaculture today.
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DUT_China
Title
Reboot T4

Abstract
With the increasing antibiotic resistance of pathogenic bacteria, we are entering the post-antibiotic era with no antibiotics available. Phage therapy is one of the promising strategies to fight against pathogenic bacteria. Synthetic biology provides the feasibility to engineer natural phages with desired properties suitable for phage therapy. Here, we are developing a yeast-based platform to genetically manipulate and reboot Coliphage T4, whose 168.9 kbp-sized genome is too huge to manipulate through existing methodologies. The whole T4 genome is amplified and assembled hierarchically through overlapping extension PCR, yeast transformation associated assembly, and CRISPR/Cas9-facilitated homologous recombination assembly. The reconstituted T4 genome is then electroporated into E. coli to generate phage particles. We expect that our platform is suitable for the manipulation of huge phages with large-sized genomes.
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Nottingham
Title
NeuroTone: The microbiome and neurodegeneration

Abstract
The University of Nottingham iGEM team have been developing a novel biotherapeutic to delay the onset and progression of neurodegenerative diseases, using synthetic biology. By engineering the bacterium Clostridium sporogenes to secrete the ketone D-β-Hydroxybutyrate (DBHB), we achieve neuroprotection by ketone-mediated relief of oxidative stress in the brain. This will occur via delivery of our C.sporogenes spores to the gut, where an established culture will produce DBHB - which enters the blood stream and crosses the blood-brain barrier, utilising the gut-brain axis. Using mathematical modelling, we identified a pathway to favour microbial DBHB production and have investigated how the culture size and metabolic activity could be regulated. Recognising potential concerns regarding genetically modified organisms, we designed strict controls to ensure our biotherapeutic cannot escape into the environment. Through several outreach projects alongside consultations with key stakeholders, we have engaged the wider community to inform and shape our work.
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MichiganState
Title
BeeTox

Abstract
Since 2005, bee populations have been declining at an alarming rate. Our team decided to address one major factor contributing to these deaths: pesticides. Project BeeTox is a probiotic that allows bees to detoxify imidacloprid, a common neonicotinoid pesticide. We divided into 3 subteams to address different aspects of the project. The Device team designed a feeder to administer the probiotic in sugar water, incorporating an image recognition biocontainment mechanism. The Gene Engineering team worked to create a designer strain of Snodgrassella alvi, a microbe that colonizes the bee gut and can be effectively transformed. Our efforts were directed towards modifying the type I secretion system of S. alvi to export enzymes for detoxifying imidacloprid. The Bioinformatics team computationally modelled imidacloprid-degrading enzymes and analyzed the metabolic profile of imidacloprid breakdown. Successful implementation of this technology has the potential to save countless bees and the plants they pollinate.
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SZU-China
Title
Blueism - A novel eco-friendly scheme for jeans dyeing and washing

Abstract
Producing every ton of jeans will pollute 200 tons of water due to the discharged 2500 toxic chemical substances, causing catastrophic effects on the environment. What's worse, in South China’s Pearl River Delta, the use of traditional methods for jeans fraying such as strong corrosive chemical reagents and sandblasting cause irreversible damage to the workers’ health. This year we designed an eco-friendly, efficient system for jeans factory. Our system includes two parts. In the first part, we produced thermostable beta-glucosidase via recombinant E.coli to synthesize Gardenia Blue, a stable, environmental friendly pigment with high dyeing efficiency. After dyeing, we used recombinant cellulase (endo-glucanase) for fraying in replacement of the stone-washing process. Besides, we designed a hardware to adjust our products to jeans manufacturing process. In brief, our automatic green system can replace manual dyeing and fraying process, while reducing pollution and protecting the health of workers.
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Hamburg
Title
Unicorn - an aMAIZEing concept

Abstract
Synthetic biologists imagine fancy synthetic circuits, which perform well in silico but have unforeseen effects in applications. In many cases we add synthetic control instruments (e.g. promoters) to already complicated cells, hoping everything works as planned even in the cellular context. But this additional complexity can pose a problem, due to unknown interactions with regulatory processes. Our aim is to make synthetic gene control easier. Cells possess specific responses to external stimuli, like pathogen infection. We propose a new mechanism which connects the natural cell response with the reliable expression of a target output, making synthetic gene control less complex and more replicable. After the proof of concept in E. coli, Zea mays and Arabidopsis thaliana we hope that our universally applicable method will be used to create sustainable pathogen and disease resistances in crop plants. 
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Concordia-Montreal
Title
AstroBio, open-source database for gene expression in microgravity & AstroYeast, resistant strains to microgravity-induced stress

Abstract
Advances in synthetic biology, including cellular agriculture, enable the sustainable production of food on Earth. However, in-space biomanufacturing, for which maintaining cultures in bioreactors for extended periods is essential, has proved challenging. Microgravity induces global changes in gene expression profiles, triggering stress responses in cells. For example, Saccharomyces cerevisiae exhibits stress responses characterized by aberrant cell polarity, budding, and separation, which affects cell growth and productivity in space. There is also a lack of bioinformatics tools for microgravity researchers. To fill this gap, we developed AstroBio, an open-source database compiling literature findings on microgravity-induced gene expression changes in different model organisms. The database informs our development of AstroYeast, yeast strains that are resistant to microgravity-induced stress. This will be done in a high-throughput manner either by strain adaptive evolution, or genome-wide overexpression and knockdown screens. AstroYeasts can be used to sustainably and renewably produce nutrients in space under microgravity conditions. 
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Botchan_Lab_Tokyo
Title
nico-friendly

Abstract
About 4.5 trillion cigarette butts are deposited somewhere in the environment every year. Out of the waste collected by coastal cleanups every year, cigarette butts comprise the largest percentage of this, which account for approximately 19 - 38 % of total waste products by count. Nicotine from cigarette butts negatively affect marine environment. Pseudomonas putida S16 can metabolite nicotine. We are planning to introduce this pathway into Escherichia coli. We expect that Escherichia coli gets ability to degrade nicotine. Through the pathway, nicotine is changed to 2,5-dihydroxypyridine. 2,5-dihydroxypyridine is a precursor of 5-aminolevulinic acid which is the main material of fertilizer and pharmaceuticals. We hope that our project helps stop littering cigarettes. And we hope that living things are more safely and peacefully.
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SJTU-BioX-Shanghai
Title
LUCAS: Locational Unique Cas9

Abstract
The off-target problem of CRISPR technology is the most troublesome factor for its in vivo operations. Regarding this, our project conducted optimization methods to obtain a CRISPR-Cas9 system for specific target with high accuracy. To achieve this goal, we adopted directed evolution and rational design methods. We proposed a pipeline integrating machine learning and Markov process in off-target prediction. Meanwhile, molecular dynamics and graph theory were also applied to guide and interpret directed evolution and rational design. In experiment, the transcriptional activation and inhibition circuits were built to reflect the on/off-target rate, serving as indicators for screening and reporting process. Finally, we hope that our method can be a guidance for further application.
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AshesiGhana
Title
The Coastbusters: Saving the Coast One bottle at the time

Abstract
Did you know that each year, more than 8 million tons of plastic waste are dumped into the ocean, harming the marine ecosystem? In response the sea seems to be fighting back through coastal erosion, which is threatening human settlements across the globe.This project aims to design a living sea defense system (bio-concrete tetrapods) by incorporating organisms capable of carrying out plastics and bio-cementation bioremediation. Several plasmids will be design to breakdown the plastic and carry out the bio-cementation process, and some plasmids will have the genes under a constitutive promoter; others would have it under a pH-responsive promoter to maintain the optimal pH for the ecosystem while others would be under a light-inducible promoter, which will be activated in the presence of increased light due to occurring cracks in the tetrapod.  We are aiming to identify the conditions necessary to initiate the ecosystem and for making it self-balancing. 
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Tsinghua
Title
NO mediated Biofilm Allayer(NBA)

Abstract
 The formation of the complex bacterial community, termed as biofilm, has proved to be critical events in both industry and medical fields. P.aeruginosa, as a common opportunity pathogen, could form resistant bioflim on pipelines which allows it to evade antibiotics and disinfectants. The diatomic gas nitric oxide(NO), a significant signal molecular in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes, has been demonstrated to regulate the formation of the biofilm in P.aeruginosa.  Here we designed the engineered bacteria, E.coli in this project, which coudld sense the presence of P.aeruginosa via introduced Rhl quorum sensing(QS) system, triggering the synthesis of NOS gene and the production of NO, and eventually resulting in the biofilm dispersion. Compared with NO gas and chemical donors, our engineered bacteria provides another solution to degrade the biofilm with better efficiency and cost.
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NCTU_Formosa
Title
E. Hybrid

Abstract
Large scale biosynthesis in producing valuable molecules and proteins come into its embryonic stage for more sustainable and renewable ways of manufacturing and simultaneously faces multiple challenges in bioengineering. Incorporation of light-driven proton pump into non-phototrophic bacteria to produce additional proton motive force has gained interest in recent years as several bacterial rhodopsins are utilized for generating larger amounts of adenosine-5'-triphosphate(ATP) for alleviating the metabolic stress caused by excessive reliance on glucose and supporting bioengineering reactions. We expressed functional Gloeobacter rhodopsin from ancient bacteria, Gloeobacter violaceus, on E. coli Lemo-21 and evaluated its growth and metabolic reactions and found it potent in creating alternative proton motive force for oxidative phosphorylation and eventually proved it to be ideal for improving protein and molecule yields. Gloeobacter rhodopsin-based E. coli serves as a fundamental strain that uses light as energy sources, thus paving promising avenues for biosynthesis and creative daily usages.
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Exeter
Title
CalcifEXE: A Bacterial Method of Calcium Carbonate Precipitation

Abstract
Traditional calcium carbonate production methods emit large amounts of carbon dioxide as well as many toxic compounds due to the reliance on fossil fuels in the manufacturing process. Our team is developing a novel precipitation method using bacteria engineered with enzymes capable of producing the carbonate ions required for precipitation of calcium carbonate. One enzyme we are focusing on is carbonic anhydrase (CA), an enzyme that facilitates the interconversion of carbon dioxide and bicarbonate in solution. CA should not only increase carbonate production, but also allow for atmospheric carbon dioxide to be used as the feedstock for the carbonate ions. Our method has the potential capability to be employed with a 3D-bioprinter that will print structures comprising a hydrogel and our engineered bacteria. On precipitation the calcium carbonate should take the shape of the hydrogel structure. One potential application, is the production of coral backbones used to facilitate coral regrowth.
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Sorbonne_U_Paris
Title
The Chlamy Cleaner, a microalgae filter to purify water.

Abstract
During the 2024 Olympic Games, Paris wants to host the triathlon swimming events in the Seine. However, the water is polluted: pesticides, hormones and antibiotics are present and might have a negative effect on the environment and human health. Our goal is to develop a solution to purify water. Using Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a chassis, we designed a microalgae filter capable of retaining and degrading these harmful compounds. We focused our efforts on Atrazine, a banned herbicide but still detectable in the Seine. We expressed four enzymes from the bacteria genera Pseudomonas in C. reinhardtii using the Golden Gate Modular Cloning (MoClo). This newly added degradation pathway aims at degrading Atrazine into a less hazardous product. To ensure additional safety, we integrated a "kill switch" device based on UV-sensitive nuclease genetic circuit leading to the death of microalgae which could escape in the wild.
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Tsinghua-A
Title
Medical Database Based On DNA Storage

Abstract
Medical data is one of the most important kinds of data for a person. It has much to do with a person's health and privacy. DNA storage is a brand new way of storing information with many advantages. By using DNA storage to store text, images, waveform etc., we can build a medical database which helps the management of this important data for even everyone, bringing convenience without the concern of personal privacy.
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Mingdao
Title
Cleandy, a candy that cleans your teeth

Abstract
Tooth decays are globally highly prevalent among children. Commensal oral microbiome balance plays a pivotal role in maintaining oral health. Nowadays, probiotic treatment is attractive but with limited effectiveness. As a result, we designed a probiotic that can eliminate Streptococcus mutans, the main cause of dental caries. We genetically modified a E. coli probiotic strain, Nissle (EcN) with pyruvate oxidase (SpxB) gene to generate H2O2, aquaporin (AQP) gene to facilitate H2O2 transport, and catalase (KatG) gene to revive from oxidative stress by decomposing H2O2 into oxygen and water. We successfully presented a proof of concept in H2O2 assay, growth inhibition and antagonistic test against the growth of S. mutans. Furthermore, we developed a prototype, Cleandy, a candy can clean your teeth. The Cleandy composed of sugar alcohols and our engineered probiotic (GM EcN) was demonstrated in our experiment showing effective antagonistic activity against S. mutans by producing H2O2.
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HZAU-China
Title
Tooth Fairy

Abstract
Enamel, the basic material of tooth is a kind of hydroxyapatite whose arrangement is ordered and tight, making it the hardest part in human body. Nevertheless, it suffers from damages in our daily life due to many reasons such as physical knock, acid erosion and bacterial infection. In the early stage of enamel damage, it is usually difficult to notice changes on the teeth or in the oral environment. However, in the later stage, when a tooth is decayed or ruptured, even doctors are unable to completely repair the damaged tooth. Besides, the treatment is painful and expensive. Our Tooth Fairy project could be an innovative solution to this problem. A tooth fairy contains several genetic circuits that enable her to provide automatic and personalized repair for the damaged tooth enamel. In addition, users can also know their oral status owing to the report ability of a tooth fairy.
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Stuttgart
Title
LAC MAN - The effective water filter to counter drug residues in wastewater

Abstract
Our project LAC-MAN focusses on water purification from the pharmaceuticals diclofenac (pain relivers) and carbamazepine (antiepileptika) using laccases. These substances still cannot be filtered out of the wastewater completely. The laccases, a class of enzymes able to degrade numerous pollutants, are immobilized to a mesoporous silica foam, making them long-term sustainable and more pH- and thermostable. Silica-based materials are well suited because they are environmentally friendly, biocompatible and resistant to organic solvents and microbial attacks. Because the enzymes are bound to a matrix via our innovative poly-lysine tag, no genetically modified organisms are released into the environment. Furthermore, the degradation products have no negative effects on nature anymore. We were able to express the laccase of S. cyaneus and to synthesize the silica foam. Furthermore, we were able to predict the substrate conversion rate in regard to the amount of immobilized laccases via a kinetic model according to Michaelis-Menten.
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Edinburgh
Title
Finding NEMO – The transcription-only biosensing platform

Abstract
We are Edinburgh's iGEM team, Finding NEMO! This year, we wanted to create something truly innovative and impactful. That's why we developed Finding NEMO, a transcription only and cell-free system for biosensing. By stripping back the material necessities, we made biosensing faster, cheaper, safer and more accessible.To achieve this we have utilised fluorescent RNA aptamers to replace the conventional GFP protein reporters. We then devised an isothermal amplification and rudimentary logic processing system mediated by synthetic RNA transcription bubbles and T7-RNA-Polymerase. To this base system, we have studied the integration of conventional biosensing modalities such as transcription factors, transcriptional riboswitches and direct oligonucleotide sensing. Our case study application is environmental water testing and we have spoken to industry leaders and regulatory authorities. At every stage we have championed open science and the UN’s sustainable development goals to ensure our design is beneficial to all and the environment. 
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Waterloo
Title
REMINE

Abstract
REMINE is a packed column bioreactor containing metal-binding proteins which remove and recover toxic but valuable heavy metals from electronic manufacturing wastewater. The REMINE system can be customized to target specific metals by increasing the metal affinity of the proteins using molecular dynamics and protein engineering tools. Process engineering methods will be used to design the packed column reactor and optimise it to specific waste streams and regulatory constraints. With REMINE, the electronic industry can continue to grow while reducing its impact on our environment and health.
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HK_CPU-WFN-WYY
Title
Cutinases - the Terminators of Microplastics

Abstract
Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is the most common thermoplastic polymer resin of the polyester family. Our team is searching for one or more suitable cutinases to degrade PET from plastic packages. We found that cutinases can convert lcPET to terephthalic acid (TPA) and ethylene glycol (EG). Therefore, we aim at reducing the harm of PET to the environment by using cutinases with a lower cost safely. First, we will determine the optimum working conditions of cutinases. Different kind of cutinases will be compared on their ability, efficiency, and optimum condition of degradation. Furthermore, those cutinases will be chosen and we will focus on the degradation rate of PET. We will consider not only the efficiency but the safety of using cutinases to degrade PET. Hence, we are here to try our utmost to solve plastic pollution through Synthetic Biology to digest plastic.
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NJTech_China
Title
Pheromone revolution: mating pathway-based promoter engineering

Abstract
Cell fusion is a fundamental biological process required for the entire development of most eukaryotic organisms, from fertilization to organogenesis. Pheromone-mediated mating in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae provides a genetically accessible model system to investigate cell-cell fusion. However, the high price of pheromone limits the development of related research. In our project, we constructed mutants to reshape signaling pathway, trying to build a chassis that responds to cheaper inducers. We characterized the intensity of three mostly pheromone responsive promoters, pfus2, pprm1, and pfig1. We innovatively evaluated the efficiency of these promoters (natural and synthetic) with pheromone responsive elements (PRE) of various copy numbers and directions. Our results expand the promoter toolbox to finely tune gene expression levels for efficient cell factories and biosensors.
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DTU-Denmark
Title
RESHAPE: Tuning morphology and secretion in Aspergillus niger for improved industrial applications

Abstract
Every week, almost 6 billion people use products made with the aid of fungal cell factories. Many of these fungi stem from the Aspergillus genus. We aim to improve the production efficiency of Aspergillus niger by creating a synthetic biology toolbox that focuses on mycelial morphology and secretion. Morphology has a significant effect on productivity of certain compounds, while proper secretion is important for later recovery and purification of a compound. We have approached our goal in three ways: 1) Characterising morphological changes of A. niger by engineering seven morphology related genes. 2) Establishing a computational model of mycelium growth based on imaging data. 3) Developing a library of native and synthetic signal peptides for protein secretion. By improving the efficiency of bio-based production processes, we can improve the economic incentive to use them, and decrease our heavy reliance on oil-based substrates in the chemical industry.
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Aalto-Helsinki
Title
SINISENS - A step towards cleaner waters

Abstract
The presence of macrolide antibiotics in nature is a growing concern as they have been on the 'watch-list' of pharmaceuticals for EU-wide monitoring in aquatic environments for several years. They can be harmful for the environment and human health because they are persistent and can remain biologically active. Additionally, they may promote the development of antimicrobial resistance. According to various experts, there will likely be regulations regarding the monitoring of macrolide antibiotics in the near future. However, current methods for measuring them are time-consuming, expensive and require expertise. Our solution, SINISENS, is designed to aid wastewater treatment plants to monitor the concentrations of macrolide antibiotics and could be used to optimize the removal process. SINISENS is an optical on-site biosensor based on a genetic circuit that utilises a transcription factor called MphR to detect macrolide antibiotics. In the presence of these compounds, SINISENS produces green fluorescence as an output signal.
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NWU-CHINA-B
Title
Let’K dissolve(Let Kaempferol dissolve)

Abstract
Kaempferol has excellent anti-inflammatory and antiviral abilities, and is a common ingredient in Chinese herbal medicines against COVID-19. However, the poor water solubility limits its application. Two UDP glycosyltransferases were obtained by constructing recombinant engineering bacteria to catalyze the synthesis of the derivatives of kaophenol, astragalin and kaophenol-3-glucose-7-oxygen-rhamnoside.The differences of water-soluble and anti-inflammatory properties between the two derivatives and kaempferol were compared, and the optimal conditions of enzymatic reaction were found through modeling.
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SUNY_Oneonta
Title
Confirming A2 Alleles using Luminescence in the Field (Ca2LF)

Abstract
Small dairy farmers in upstate New York are struggling to survive in a factory-farming marketplace. To increase profits, some farmers are producing specialty products; one such product in the US is A2 milk. A2 milk differs from the more common A1 milk in the sequence of beta-casein, one of the main milk proteins. The gene that codes for the A1/A2 alleles of beta-casein differs by a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). A2 milk is growing in popularity in the US due to purported health benefits. Our team aims to create a field-deployable genetic test to facilitate breeding of A2 herds. Our system utilizes a 5’ Flap endonuclease (Flappase) and quenched-oligonucleotides that differentially bind to the A1/A2 alleles of beta-casein. When in the correct conformation, Flappase will cleave the oligonucleotides, dequenching the fluorescent tag. Dairy farmers using this system will be able to rapidly identify cows carrying the A2 allele for breeding. 
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UCAS-China
Title
Stomach Homeostasis Establishment for Eluding the Plethora of H. pylori (SHEEP)

Abstract
On asteroid B612, the little prince was busy pulling up shoots of the baobabs. Because once they had occasionally grown up, their roots could split the entire asteroid into pieces. Fortunately, B612 eventually gets a sheep that eats up the soaring baobab shoots without uprooting them. In this way, the little prince, baobab trees and sheep form a stable ecological balance. This story presents our new ideas on the treatment of H. pylori related diseases. H. pylori has been symbiotic with humans in the stomach for more than 60,000 years. Either its plethora or disappearance inflicts various diseases on human bodies. Complete elimination recommended by current treatment is not satisfying. Thus we proposed "SHEEP" therapy, which introduced engineered L. acidophilus into the stomach to realize the balance of microecology. Aiming for personalized treatment, we obtain data from capsule robots’ stomach sampling and photographing. The ternary-balanced-relation module is simulated as well
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BGU-Israel
Title
WIPEOUT - Wipes out wet wipes of the environment!

Abstract
Over the last two decades, the use of wet wipes has become commonplace across the globe. Disposal of wet wipes through the toilet and their accumulation in the sewer systems cause extensive damage; In Israel alone, repairing the wet wipes damage to sewer systems is estimated by 3,360,000$ per year!"Wipeout" presents a leading and innovative solution to this unsolved, global problem of biodegradation of domestic contamination of sewage and water systems. We aim to utilize biological methods, including genetically engineering the sewer systems' bacterial populations, using bacterial surface- display systems. Our final goal is to solve the clogging problems caused by an accumulation of cellulose fibered wipes in sewer systems and prevent a generation of "fatbergs", which are thousands of wipes stacked together with other flushed solids and fats. By finding a solution to this problem we may be able to prevent both ecological and economic damages.
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RDFZ-China
Title
Tea-HEE

Abstract
Depression is a common yet serious disease worldwide effecting more than 322 million people. It has been accepted that serotonin deficiency is the major cause of depression and medications are made to improve this situation. Yet patients often feel pressure and refuse to take antidepressants due to social stigmas.Our project, Tea-HEE, focused on a novel way to prevent this problem. We engineered E. coli Nissle 1917 (an FDA approved probiotic) to be placed in patients’ intestine. It can be activated by PCA, a tea metabolite derived from tea intake, and to produce 5-HTP, the precursor of serotonin naturally present in intestines that has multiple advantages for serotonin synthesis. Therefore by ingesting tea, a common beverage, patients can get an ample supply of 5-HTP in their intestine and hence an ample supply of serotonin in their brain to fight depression toward a better quality of life without pressure.
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NUDT_CHINA
Title
Predator Pro: a modularized toolbox for signal-controlled Targeted Protein Degradation

Abstract
Exactitude temporal control of protein abundance is critical for the robustness and dynamics of synthetic circuits. While multiple approaches have been developed to manipulate the protein synthesis, few tools have been demonstrated to precisely control untagged protein degradation. Here, we present Predator Pro, a modularized and signal-controllable method for target protein degradation, on the basis of the Predator system we demonstrated in iGEM 2018-19. By rationally reengineer the Trim21 protein, we demonstrated that the interaction between Trim21 and antibody Fc domain can be replaced with other constitutive or inducible protein dimerization pairs. We demonstrated that constitutive DocS-Coh2 interaction or rapamycin-induced FRP-FKBP interaction enabled constitutive or drug-controlled degradation of untagged EGFP protein. As an effective expansion of the current synthetic biological tools for protein abundance control, this system may provide a modularized and convenient platform for controlled protein degradation, which might be applied in fundamental researches and clinical applications.
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ZJU-China
Title
MagHER2some

Abstract
Breast cancer is the main malignant tumor that threatens women's health. In an effort to overcome the unspecificity and side effect of the current contrast agent used for MRI, we reconstructure the magnetosomes from magnetotactic bacteria Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense to produce a contrast agent with high biocompatibility that specifically targets HER2 positive breast cancer cells. With biological modifications, magnetosomes can link with anti-HER2 antibodies. By antigen-antibody interaction, engineering magnetosomes can conjugated with HER2 positive breast cancer cells, demonstrating a special pattern on the image under magnetic field. Armed with our engineered contrast agent MagHER2some, the efficiency of evaluating the response of the treatment of HER2-postive breast cancer treatment can be optimized, thus assisting the progress of therapy process. Further application can be made through establishment of a platform with biomarkers targeting various diseases as inputs, paving avenue for precise evaluation of other diseases. 
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BHSF
Title
Khronos: The Timer Yeast

Abstract
When baking at home, people always have their bread over-fermented due to the of experience and disturbance from other matters. However, fermentation is the most important process in baking. Therefore, we came up with the idea of modifying the genes in auxotroph baking yeast to stop fermentation at appropriate times. We designed a circuit based on toggle switch. Before we add the inducer galactose, the switch is kept at “off” state, where a protein that complements the auxotroph gets to express, after the galactose is added, the switch is turned on by accumulation of the previously repressed gene, the expression of the other gene is then shut down, along with the gene of the complimentary protein, leading to a drop in their concentrations and terminating fermentation over a certain period of time.
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Jiangnan_China
Title
Sophorolipid: Biosynthesis of fine-tuned acid/ lactone ratio in Starmerella bombicola based on CRISPR/Cas9

Abstract
Cyanobacteria blooms have gradually evolved into a global problem of water pollution. Sophorolipid, an eco-friendly biosurfactant, can degrade cyanobacteria effectively. Acid sophorolipids have better surfactant activity and lactone sophorolipids have better bacteriostatic effect. However, the sophorolipids produced by wild-type Starmerella bombicola are random mix of these two types. To obtain the higher yield of sophorolipid and combine the advantages of these two types, Jiangnan_China constructed a CRISPR/Cas9 gene-editing system in Starmerella bombicola to over-express UDP-glucosyltransferase B (UGTB) and adjust the lactonase (SBLE) expression level by using different promoters. Finally, a recombinant strain consistent with our expectation was constructed and produces sophrolipids with appropriate ratio that achieves the maximum efficiency of degrading cyanobacteria.
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UESTC-Software
Title
CPD3DS-Classification of Protein Domains in 3D Shape to design a standard set of protein bricks

Abstract
Proteins are responsible for most of the physiological functions in the cells, and many synthetic biologists focus on designing customized proteins according to demands. Nowadays, the protein design starts from a new amino acid sequence in most cases, the workload is undoubtedly huge. At the same time, the structure of a protein is often closely related to the function of protein. Our project, CPD3DS, directly uses the structural domains as the basic unit to analyze protein structures. To get a set of protein bricks, domains were classified by their shape features, and 3D-Zernike descriptor were used to cluster all domains in existing databases. We developed a user-friendly website, termed CPD3DS, for retrieval, analyses and visualization of classified protein domains. In addition, we printed a set of our protein bricks for teaching and popularize synthetic biology.
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ZJUT_China_B
Title
Multivirus Monitor

Abstract
The global pandemic of COVID-19 highlights the great importance of detecting viruses. We aim to construct a "Multivirus Monitor" as an application of CRISPR Cas13 in point-of-care diagnostics, which could detect multiple viruses in one pot. We tested the feasibility of the platform by testing the specificity between Cas13 orthologs and their sequence-specific reporters. We designed a multivirus detecting device which combines sample processing,amplification and detecting chambers. Based on fluorescence detecting,the detecting results can be processed and transmitted to mobile terminals to make the results visible. We are designing an interactive platform called "virusee" which could provide optimal solutions and suggestions to users. Furthermore,we are constructing a database called "vivalibrary",which could provide users with viral information and its corresponding crRNA. Conceived as a multivirus detecting and feedback platform for rapid point-of-care diagnostics, Multivirus Monitor can be a promising weapon in the unpredictable fight against viruses.  
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TUDelft
Title
PHOCUS - Target locusts from within

Abstract
Since ancient history, locust plagues have been devastating crops and pastures, threatening food security across the globe. Current strategies to fight locust swarms rely on unspecific and dangerous chemical pesticides that harm other insects, or on biopesticides that are too slow. Our mission is to provide a novel biopesticide against locusts that is fast-acting and safe. We introduce PHOCUS, a biopesticide based on engineered bacteriophages that infect the gut bacteria of the locust. After infection, the bacteria produce a crystal protein (Cry7Ca1) from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) that specifically harms locusts, and RNA interference (RNAi) precursors, all encoded within the phage genome. Cry7Ca1 punctures the gut lining, harming the locust and allowing the RNAi precursors to reach the hemolymph, where they mature and silence the expression of vital locust genes. With this unique complementary approach, PHOCUS kills the locusts from within.
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NAU-CHINA
Title
Soil lead immobilization magician(SLIM):earthworms carrying engineered Bacillus subtilis

Abstract
Lead pollution in soil has brought great losses to agriculture and human health. However, traditional approaches such as physicochemical repair and plant enrichment will cause other hazards and have lower efficiency, respectively. Therefore, it is urgent to develop new strategies for lead pollution treatment. This year, to make up for the deficiency of traditional methods, NAU-CHINA combined earthworms (Eisenia foetida) and bacteria (Bacillus subtilis) to immobilize soil lead. Earthworms was used as carrier of bacteria, and we transformed bacteria to secrete phytase specifically by using oxygen-regulated switch to hydrolyze phytate in the intestines of earthworms. Lead ions can be precipitated into insolubles by combining with phosphate and chloride ions, thus purifying soil. Meanwhile, we added suicide module considering the biosafety of using genetically modified organisms in the environment. Affected by COVID-19, we cannot do experiments. So we collected data from literature and constructed mathematical models to predict results and feasibility.
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Ionis_Paris
Title
BacTail : Target, Kill and Self-Destroy, an innovative way to fight against antimicrobial resistance

Abstract
Since the discovery of antibiotics, their massive and repeated use has led to the appearance of resistant bacteria for which no treatment exists. This is a major healthcare issue to which the IONIS Paris 2020 team is trying to respond. BacTail aims at designing tailor made therapeutic bacteria with three main abilities: Target, Kill and Self-Destroy. The first step is inspired by the specific recognition capabilities of bacteriophages. We will express their binding proteins on the surface of our bacteria. After binding to the pathogenic target, our bacteria will secrete specific antimicrobial peptides to kill it. For environmental and safety purposes, in order to prevent their dissemination, our bacteria is designed with an integrated kill-switch system. Once its mission is completed, it will self-destroy. All in all, BacTail is an innovative way to safely and locally target and kill antibiotic resistant bacteria.
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Bielefeld-CeBiTec
Title
WavySense: Don’t take your hormones, measure them!

Abstract
Have you ever thought about contraception? Did you know most contraceptives are invasive and can have severe side effects?A new, innovative and non-invasive method is needed. One that reliably reports the user's fertility. Therefore, we developed WavySense: Contributing to gender equality by supporting and empowering women, lacking any side effects.WavySense enables users to determine the current fertility by directly measuring the characteristic sex hormones estrogen, progesterone and luteinizing hormone in urine using the surface acoustic wave technique. An electronic module induces waves in a piezoelectric crystal, which are phase-shifted by mass changes on the surface.We produced hormone-specific antibodies in E. coli and single chain variable fragments for comparison. Immobilized on the gold-coated surface of the crystal, antibody-antigen binding leads to a phase shift which is detected by the electronics and transferred to our user-friendly app. It tracks, evaluates and visualizes recent measurements, displaying the current fertility status.
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Lambert_GA
Title
AgroSENSE

Abstract
Over 23.5 million Americans face food insecurity or have limited access to affordable and fresh produce, leading to nutrient deficiency. Aquaponics is a pragmatic solution to address food insecurity, but maintenance and costs are barriers to implementation. Lambert iGEM’s AgroSENSE utilizes modular hardware, nutrient biosensors, and iOS/Android compatible software to monitor and analyze nutrient levels and environmental conditions to optimize plant growth. Our Arduino sensors measure environmental conditions while biosensors are utilized to monitor phosphate and nitrate nutrient balance. We characterized BioBricks based on E. coli’s native PHO and NAR signaling pathways. The expression of GFP in the presence of these nutrients is analyzed by Fluoro-Q, our improved frugal fluorometer. The data will be quantified by our Agro-Q mobile app, enabling end-users to make informed decisions regarding aquaponics systems. With an emphasis on integration of educational curriculum, AgroSENSE serves as a model for future agricultural biotechnology innovations. 
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OhioState
Title
Biocontainment Reimagined

Abstract
The field of synthetic biology has one major barrier to being accepted by the broader public: safety. While we may know that the organisms we use are harmless, most people don’t have the background knowledge needed to come to the same conclusion. We believe that the best way to raise safety and confidence in synthetic biology products is by adding genetic biocontainment systems, which are genes and genome edits that give us control over the life of our microbes. These systems range from small genetic circuits of promoters and toxins to complete genomic rewrites, and we’ve compiled all of them into a simple, flexible database. To accompany this, we’ve developed predictive models and educational media, all with the express purpose of making biocontainment easier to implement and making synthetic biology safer for public use.
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TAU_Israel
Title
sTAUbility - an innovative approach to increase the genetic stability of heterologous genes

Abstract
A key challenge in the field of synthetic biology is genomic instability of introduced genes. Once a gene is inserted into a host organism, it can cause an additional metabolic load, significantly reducing host fitness. Mutations that damage the introduced gene are therefore likely to be selected for, diminishing its expression. These mutations could render synthetic-biology products obsolete and require constant maintenance.We propose interlocking a target gene to the N-terminus of an essential gene in the host’s genome, under the same promoter. This way, mutations on the target gene are likely to affect the expression of the essential gene, leading to mutated host mortality. We are developing a software called sTAUbility, that would match the best-fitting essential gene and linker to a given target gene, based on bioinformatic models and novel approaches for measuring stability. Furthermore, sTAUbility optimizes the combined construct for efficient gene expression and increased stability.
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HK_HCY
Title
Reducing biofilm formation in Lactobacillus fermentum: Targeting intervention on the AI-2/LuxS quorum sensing system

Abstract
Lactobacillus sp. are the most abundant bacterial contaminants in biofuel. Among them, L. fermentum is the most common one, accounting for 50% relative abundances of microbial species in bioethanol production. In our proposed study, L. fermentum 2-1, with a special quorum sensing (QS)-related feature given its higher level of production of autoinducer-2 (AI-2), would be examined for the effects of a dual-pronged intervention of the AI-2/LuxS QS system on biofilm formation. One of the quorum quenching approaches would be to inhibit the activity of LuxS (AI-2 synthase) using a putative high-affinity peptide ligand that has been shown to specifically inhibit LuxS in Streptococcus suis. The second approach would be to degrade AI-2 molecules extracellularly using the kinase LarK. We hope to achieve an effective inhibition in the formation of biofilm in biofuel through our dual-pronged intervention.
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Vilnius-Lithuania
Title
FlavoFlow - a comprehensive exogenous fish infections detecton, treatment and prevention strategy

Abstract
Growing fish consumption rates encouraged marine culture farms to implement recirculating aquaculture systems that make intensive fish production compatible with environmental sustainability. Even if these systems reduce the use of terrestrial resources, water recirculation in such systems can cause significant losses because of bacterial or viral infections. A common pathogen of fish infections is the Flavobacterium genus bacteria, which can cause fish death in a few days after the initial infection. To detect the infection as soon as possible, we developed a rapid detection test based on helicase-dependent amplification and lateral-flow assay methods. Additionally, we created a novel treatment method which relies on a quorum sensing mechanism and exolysin protein with the aim of decreasing antibiotic consumption levels. Finally, to prevent forthcoming infections, our third goal is to provide a prevention system based on subunit vaccines encapsulated in alginate beads.
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Gaston_Day_School
Title
Eliminating Kudzu to Restore Natural Habitats for Crops and Endangered Species

Abstract
In order to remove kudzu, farmers and power companies often have to spray harmful chemicals on their land. These chemicals, along with many other kudzu removal options, are expensive and can pose harmful effects to human health and the ecosystem. Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola has been found to affect legumes specifically by producing the phytotoxin phaseolotoxin. Our team plans to replicate the phaseolotoxin production pathway in Escherichia coli and utilize the toxin as a more environmentally friendly option to remove kudzu. After the removal of kudzu, local endangered species can regrow without competition. Additionally, we developed three models to simulate the spread of infectious plant diseases like Asian Soybean Rust using kudzu as a vector, simulate the ROTCase production and activity under promoters with different strengths, and predict the spread and management cost of kudzu in a local area. 
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Cornell
Title
Lumicure

Abstract
This year, Cornell iGEM aims to design a bacteriotherapy treatment and tracking system for cancerous malignant tumors. This system aims to take advantage of the fact that cancerous tumors have an immunoprivileged microenvironment and that malignancies migrate through the bloodstream to other parts of the body.To our bacteria, we will introduce genetic constructs coding for a therapeutic: trichosanthin. We have designed a lactate-inducible toxin-antitoxin system (GhoS/GhoT) which ensures the E. coli do not survive outside of the high-lactate environment of the tumor. These E. coli cells will also be engineered to constitutively express mCardinal, a fluorescent protein, detectable by our fluorescence detection system. This detection system will consist mainly of: an excitation filter and emission filter, a dichroic mirror, a laser, and a raspberry pi microcontroller. We hope that we can effectively demonstrate a proof-of-concept for this treatment system in treating real cancerous tumors later on down the line.
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iBowu-China
Title
Sureloc (Surely Locates Cancer)

Abstract
Non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) is a common type of epithelial cancer, which is not sensitive to chemotherapy or radiotherapy. To address this issue, our team developed a therapy based on magneto-hyperthermia. We designed a vector that codes for magnetic protein crystals (MPCs) through the use of a tumor-specific promoter. Liposomes with surface PEG GE11 modifications carrying MPC vectors will target NSCLC cells. Post transfection, targeted tumor cells will express MPCs, which enable the binding of iron. Iron-loaded MPCs will then respond to localized alternating magnetic fields and induce cell death. The active targeting ligand, tumor-specific promoter, and localized alternating magnetic fields provide triple targeting security. Currently, we completed the in vitro isolation and purification of the MPCs with successful confirmation of their magnetism. The successive steps are to control the MPCs’ size, add the internal targeting ligand, and experiment the targeting capabilities in vivo.
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KUAS_Korea
Title
Thermopatch : What's your body temperature now?

Abstract
One of the key factors to South Korea’s success in controlling COVID-19 is early detection. Aside from aggressive COVID-19 testing, South Korea also deployed temperature checks at entries of every indoor public facilities for screening purposes. However, the current screening methods such as contactless thermometers and infrared cameras are not efficient because of the high costs of resources needed for setting up screening booths and its failure to monitor temperature continuously. Our ‘Thermopatch’ is a device that complements these limitations. In the process, we utilized light-up RNA aptamer(‘Catalytic Hairpin Assembly(CHA)’ method specifically) and thermosensing RNA. We ultimately hope our ‘Thermopatch’ can help people get through these difficult times.
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SUSTech_Shenzhen
Title
Developing a Small Molecule to Inhibit Phage Infection of Bacterium Pseudomonas

Abstract
Pseudomonas have great potential for different biotechnological applications, particularly in the areas of bioremediation and biocatalysis. For instance, more than 80% vitamin B12 is synthesized by P.denitrificans in factories.Here we present a chemical biology approach of developing a small molecule that can protect Pseudomonas from phages infection. We attempt to utilize the Target-Directed Screening technique to find a small molecule which disrupts the translation of a critical protein during phages infections. In silico screening was performed using the software Molecular Operating Environment and an effective compound was confirmed through further tests.
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UFlorida
Title
Aquatic Phosphorus Detection Using SCRIBE

Abstract
Team Florida 2020 takes inspiration from their 2019 project to improve and apply the novel biosensor technology that detects and records phosphorous levels to real-world ecological implications. This project couples the Synthetic Cellular Recorders Integrating Biological Events (SCRIBE) system with the naturally occurring PhoB-PhoR system in E.coli. In response to phosphorus, SCRIBE utilizes a reverse transcriptase enzyme to produce single stranded DNA which can be incorporated into the host-genome during DNA replication using the Beta Recombinase protein which results in a mutation within the bacterial chromosome. This system can be utilized to measure the amount of phosphorus in a body of water by modeling the fraction of cells that gain the mutation per generation. In the absence of a lab, the UF iGEM team seeks to model this hypothetical biosensor as part one of a two-part project. 
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UofUppsala
Title
NANOFLEX

Abstract
Our project aims to create a cellular biosensor adaptable to detect your analytes of choice. Its design contains a sensory module, where nanobodies interact with the targets, activating the signal amplification module, which will result in an output signal visible to the naked eye. Placing this system in an easy-to-use format we intend to offer a standardized, flexible and accessible detection system.
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UCSC
Title
Komaplastics: Creating a biodegradable bed mulch from bacterial cellulose

Abstract
Plastic bed mulch films are an essential agricultural tool; they limit fumigant emissions, provide UV and water resistance, prevent weed and pest growth, and maximize crop yield. However, current disposal methods are unsustainable; the majority of bed mulches are dumped into landfills, degrade into harmful chemicals, and pollute local communities. Komaplastics will lay the foundation for creation of a biodegradable bed mulch from bacterial cellulose (BC) produced by Komagataeibacter rhaeticus. BC is highly crystalline due to hydrogen bonding between hydroxyl groups of adjacent strands which is a barrier to homogenous incorporation of plasticizing molecules. Thus, we investigated carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) for their potential to disrupt these hydrogen bonding networks and facilitate addition of plasticizing molecules. We also tested various compounds for their ability to plasticize chemically decrystallized BC. Our work will provide a scaffold for the development of a cellulose-based biodegradable plastic bed mulch film produced in a biological system.
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まとめ

いかがでしたでしょうか?
大変多くのチームが、オリジナリティ溢れたプロジェクトを行っていることがわかっていただけたかと思います。まだ1/4ほどのチームですので、また次回もお楽しみにしていただければと思います。