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最終更新日 : 2021年06月13日

iGEM2020全チームプロジェクト概要 ~第二弾~

本記事では、iGEM 2020年に参加した全チームのプロジェクトについてまとめた記事の第二弾になります。(全4回を予定しています)。
iGEM 2020では、どのようなテーマがあったのか網羅的にわかるようになっておりますので、ざっと眺めて見てはいかがでしょうか。

第一弾はこちらから
iGEM2020全チームプロジェクト概要 ~第一弾~
[翻訳版] iGEM2020全チームプロジェクト概要 ~第一弾~


※本まとめは、全てのデータをiGEM2020のオープンなデータから取得しております。

データの見方

(例) チーム名(チームページリンク付き)
タイトル
要約
Wikiへのリンク

このような構成で、全チームをまとめていきます。

チームリスト

GO Paris-Saclay
Title
HuGenesS: a project on gene entanglement

Abstract
HuGenesS is based on the concept of overlapping genes, where a DNA stretch encodes two genes, depending on the reading frame. The genes are interlaced, as if in a loving hug! While such genetic arrangements exist in nature, this phenomenon could not be easily harnessed for synthetic biology until the CAMEOS software was developed by Harris Wang's Team.We used it to generate several entangled genes encoding reporter and antibiotic resistance proteins. We cloned the sequence encoding GFP and KNT. Since the cloned entangled genes lost functionality, we improved CAMEOS to generate sequences preserving conserved amino acids and to choose the best overlap. We have written comprehensive tutorials on utilizing CAMEOS. The improved software generated sequences that are currently tested by a research team optimizing lipid synthesis in yeast.Genetic entanglement has many potential applications from designing minimal genomes to developing improved, safer and more stable genetic constructs. Confined hugs!
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Stony Brook
Title
Light-triggered knockdown of the WUSCHEL gene in Nicotiana benthamiana

Abstract
Genetically modified (GM) crops have seen widespread adoption in large-scale agriculture, given their potential to improve commercial farming yields and mitigate crop losses from pests and pathogens. With widespread adoption, they could also increase the incidence of gene flow—the transfer of genetic variation across populations—from transgenic to wild crops, threatening biodiversity. Hence, a solution is proposed wherein an optogenetic killswitch, introduced in Nicotiana benthamiana, preventing plant development upon exposure to UV-B light (~311 nm). Through the optogenetic pair comprised of ULTRAVIOLET RESPONSE LOCUS 8 (UVR8) with attached tetracycline repressor domain (TetR) and CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1 (COP1) with attached VP16 transactivation domain, the transcription of synthetic trans-acting small interfering RNAs (syn-tasiRNAs) will be controlled. These syn-tasiRNAs will disrupt the CLAVATA-WUSCHEL signaling pathway through the knockdown of the WUSCHEL (WUS) gene. Stem cells in the shoot apical meristem (SAM) will differentiate, causing stem cell depletion and prevention of further plant growth.
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TU Darmstadt
Title
B-TOX: reduction of waste water toxicity using a B. subtilis biofilm 

Abstract
Water is undoubtedly one of our most precious goods and basis of life. But somehow, we humans have managed to neglect and pollute this meaningful resource. Nonetheless, most of us aren't even aware of the consequences.In this year's iGEM project, we have made it our mission to make a difference in wastewater treatment and develop an innovative future for pharmaceutical degradation: B-TOX, a modular biofilm able to degrade a variety of detrimental micropollutants like the anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac.By devising an enhanced and modular B. subtilis biofilm, we can render pharmaceutical residues less toxic, utilizing the degrading properties of enzymes. We immobilize our degradation enzymes in the extracellular biofilm matrix, thereby providing a self-sustaining system without the necessity downstream processing.A safe implementation and the prevention of bacteria release is given through our kill switch system, connecting the survival of our bacteria to the presence of determined molecules. 
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Qdai
Title
P. coli: Engineering E.coli to have an increased capacity of phosphorus accumulation

Abstract
While phosphorus is one of the most important resources for agricultural food production, it becomes a great driver of water pollution when it enters the environment. Sometimes the pollution causes health problems to humans and animals. Further, phosphorus is expected to be depleted in about 50 years, so the recovery and recycling is a big issue.We looked into phosphorus metabolism of bacteria and hope to enhance its capacity of phosphorus accumulation by engineering E.coli to increase polyphosphate kinase and decrease exopolyphosphatase.We believe that our project contributes to sustainable development goals (SDGs).
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CSMU Taiwan
Title
miRNA.doc—a novel detection method for oral cancer

Abstract
    The mortality rate of oral cancer is ranked fifth out of all cancers in Taiwan. The most common way to diagnose the disease is visual examination. However, this method frequently results in false-negative outcomes. We aim to develop a simple and systematic approach to assist doctors in diagnosing and treating oral cancers in the early stage, ultimately decreasing the mortality rate of the disease.    We chose the miRNAs present in the patient's saliva as our biomarker. When they bind to our designed toehold switches, the loop on the toehold unwinds and translates the enzyme, invertase, which can break down sucrose into glucose. The amount of glucose can be measured by a glucometer, and doctors can use the measured data to assist diagnosis of oral cancer.    Our project not only helps doctors with the diagnosis but also increases patients' survival rate and their life quality.
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KU ISTANBUL
Title
The Living Laser: Transforming Cells into Lasers

Abstract
Systems approach in many domains of biological sciences requires large amounts of imaging data across different length and time scales. To step up into high throughput screening methods required for diagnostics and basic research purposes, multiplexed labeling, uniquely tagging, and tracking individual cells, and increasing the penetration depth of light into tissues are demanded. In order to meet these necessities, here we are demonstrating the living laser which is a morphosis of cells into lasers by building natural resonators on the surface of cells using novel gene circuits. We will be exploring the stability, feasibility, and practicality of these biological lasers in four main application domains: picking quality oocytes for IVF, tracking cancer cells over long periods of time, sensing internal and external changes of cells and creating a novel technique for characterization of cells and tissues.
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UChicago
Title
Optizyme: A Novel Open-Source Computational Modelling and Optimization Package for Design of Cell-Free Systems

Abstract
Optizyme is an open source package in the computer language R that aims to streamline computational approaches to synthetic biology problems. Optizyme contains a suite of functions that allow for Michaelis-Menten model construction and visualization given only biological parameters. Most importantly, Optizyme allows for optimization of enzyme concentrations within cell-free systems through a gradient descent algorithm that accepts models built using Optizyme's capabilities, as well as any user constructed model that fulfills certain requirements detailed in the package documentation. Accuracy of the optimization algorithm is tested on the model described in “A combined experimental and modelling approach for the Weimberg pathway optimisation” (Shen et al). Using their model, Optizyme identifies a higher performing optimum than the optimal ratio identified by Shen et al. We then apply the capabilities of Optizyme to optimize the design of a cell-free system we intend to construct next year that degrades polyethylene terephthalate into catechol. 
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Amsterdam
Title
Forbidden FRUITS: stable microbial production strategies for non-native compounds

Abstract
Genetically engineered cellular systems can be used to produce industrially valuable compounds in a sustainable way. A challenge is that it is more beneficial for cells to use their resources exclusively for growth, resulting in a loss of production ability. Therefore, we have developed Forbidden FRUITS, a pipeline that can solve this problem by calculating and optimizing engineering strategies to couple a product forming pathway to microbial growth. Multiple databases, constraint-based programming and gene-protein-reaction associations are used to devise suitable strategies. These strategies are then optimized using pathfinding methods and sequence optimization. As proof-of-principle, we applied Forbidden FRUITS to salicylic acid, lactate and mannitol production in Synechocystis PCC6803, lactate in Synechococcus UTEX 2973 and salicylic acid in Escherichia Coli. Forbidden FRUITS is shown to be flexible and allow for the fast development of stable production strains, making the full-potential of biotechnology evermore attainable.
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Purdue
Title
Microfluidic Argonaute Mediated COVID-19 Point of Care Diagnostic Device.

Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has strained global diagnostic capacities and highlighted the limitations ofconventional lab-based assays, which can take between 1-14 days to receive conclusive results. Current on-site kits have false-negative rates as high as 33%. In an effort to provide accurate, non-invasive, affordable, and rapid Point of Care(POC) diagnostic tests for COVID-19 and other emerging pandemics, Purdue iGEM is developing cArgo: a COVID-19 Argonaute mediated microfluidic diagnostic device. cArgo extracts viral RNA from saliva for amplification and conversion into dsDNA. TtAgo that we will express and purify from e.coli then cleaves the dsDNA using COVID-19 DNA guides producing ssDNA fragments. These fragments hybridize to molecular beacons emitting a quantifiable fluorescent signal for conclusive result determination. Coupling the biologics with chip barcoding and app integration, we hope to revolutionize POC Diagnostics while making data more accessible for simultaneous detection and contact tracing. 
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Stockholm
Title
S-POP: a modular biosensor for the detection of POPs in water

Abstract
After centuries spent using oceans for waste management, we've finally realized impact of water pollution. Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), including PFOS (perfluorooctanesulfonic acid) and PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), have been of great concern, due to their toxicity in low concentrations and bioaccumulating properties that lead to alarming concentrations in the ecosystem. Current detection methods, which are performed by analyzing massive amounts of water samples in the lab, cannot properly measure the low levels of POPs nor differentiate between the various iterations that exist. Our project S-POP aims to solve this issue by creating a monitor containing two major parts, a modular E. coli biosensor coupled with a Microbial Fuel Cell. When E. coli is activated by the pollutant a Quorum sensing (QS) molecule is produced. Upregulated by the QS-molecule, engineered Shewanella oneidensis produces an oscillating electrical signal that corresponds to the type and quantity of pollutants in the sample.
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UUlm
Title
Biodegradation of Polystyrene on the Basis of Genetically Modified Intestinal Bacteria of Tenebrio molitor larvae

Abstract
Polystyrene is one of the most abundant plastics on earth and often ends up in large quantities in our environment. Sustainability is our central credo and we present a new approach of biodegrading polystyrene with the help of genetically modified bacteria introduced into the intestines of mealworms (Tenebrio molitor larvae). Previously, it has been shown that these larvae can use polystyrene foam as sole carbon source, thus it is a biodegradable substance. We designed a recombinant Escherichia coli strain capable of converting acetyl-CoA to acetone. The genetic modifications intend to integrate a plasmid carrying several genes of the ABE fermentation. We want to have acetone produced by bacteria in the intestines of the larvae. Here, it is supposed to help breaking down the plastic, because acetone can dissolve polystyrene. Acetone intercalates in between the polymer chains and increases the surface area that can be attacked by the bacteria. 
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Alma
Title
Poisoned River

Abstract
The Pine River is found in central Michigan, near the campus of Alma College. Following the closure of the Velsicol Chemical Plantin 1978, many environmental pollutants -- such as DDT -- were improperly disposed of and allowed to leach into the surrounding soil and Pine River. These organochlorides are endocrine disruptors as well as possible carcinogens that have wreakedhavoc on the local avian population. Several species of animals have estrogen receptors known to bind DDT, a known xenoestrogen. Linking this binding process to a reporting gene, such as RFP, within a microbe will allow for the detection of organochlorides,which can enhance broad spectrum screening of these contaminated areas both locally and globally. Ultimately, this biosensor has the potential to save thousands of dollars in the pollution cleanup effort as well as provide a basis for the development of futuresynthetic biology tools for the bioremediation of DDT.
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CU-Boulder
Title
Engineering Self-Fertilizing Plants

Abstract
All plants need nitrogen to survive, but cannot use nitrogen (N2) directly from the atmosphere. They must receive their nitrogen as ammonia (NH3) that has been fixated by other sources such as symbiotic bacteria, decomposing plants, or synthetic fertilizers. Today, the world population is only sustainable if ammonia-rich fertilizers are used to increase crop production. However, fertilizer is an environmental hazard due to the extensive release of carbon dioxide. Also, fertilizer runoff causes algae populations to grow faster than the ecosystem can handle, creating oxygen-depleted dead zones within the ocean. Due to growing environmental concerns, genetically engineering plants to contain the bacterial enzyme, nitrogenase, may allow plants to become self-fertilizing. Nitrogenase is extremely sensitive to radical oxygen and may not survive in plant cells. Our team has proposed a protein engineering solution by coupling an enzyme that scavenges radical oxygen (superoxide dismutase) directly to nitrogenase; allowing for self-fertilization.
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Jilin China
Title
iGame

Abstract
This year, an unexpected disease has struck the world. Professor John Conway, who has invented the Game of Life, unfortunately passed away due to this pandemic. The Game of Life is a cellular automaton as well as a self-regulating simulation game. Inspired by this, we design another “Game of Life” by synthetic biology means in which microorganisms compete for survival under player's light-control. The game contains three plans. Under different plans, player bacteria fight against enemy bacteria with antibiotics system, sensing system and toxin-antitoxin system correspondingly. To optimize players' gaming experience, we conduct experiments in the lab and collect relative parameters and data. Then we make it a videogame so that players can simply click on buttons on the screen to set the light for their battle and within several minutes they can get the game result.
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IISER Bhopal
Title
THE BIG PIE: Beta Cells In Gut Produce Insulin using E.coli (Tackling Diabetes Without Injections!)

Abstract
Globally, over 463 million adults suffer from diabetes, with the number estimated to exceed 575 million by 2030. Insulin, the ideal therapeutic for diabetics worldwide, is available only in an injectable form. Our project presents an out-of-the-box approach to tackle diabetes based on transdifferentiation. Our delivery vector, E. coli Nissle 1917, would be programmed to attach to crypt cells through expression of a crypt cell-specific antibody Lgr5. This would be followed by translocation of the three transcription factors - PDX1, MAFA & NGN3 - via the Type 3 Secretion System (a molecular syringe) into the cells to convert them into glucose-responsive beta-islet like cells. An inbuilt kill switch would ensure organisms egested from the body do not survive. Proof of concept will be established in the E. coli K-12 strain. The objective is to design a smart and viable alternative for insulin injections.
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CSU CHINA
Title
Clean the Contamination of Cadmium ( CcC )

Abstract
Recently, the cadmium-contaminated rice circulating in the market. Long-term intake of cadmium will jeopardize human bodies. To deal with the problem, we utilize engineered Synechocystis as a competent cadmium absorber. Moreover, with blue-ray/antitoxin suicide system, the reformed alga will be appropriately contained. The cadmium can be recycled as the microorganisms will be calcined after absorption. The application of engineered alga will minimize human potential cadmium intake.
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Evry Paris-Saclay
Title
Rosewood

Abstract
Illegal wildlife trade is a scourge that affects biodiversity, destroys the fragile equilibrium of natural ecosystems, leads to accelerated extinction of species, and adversely impacts humankind. Elephant's ivory, rhinoceros' horn, tiger's fur are all well-known examples, but the most trafficked wildlife product in the world is Rosewood. To the naked eye, Rosewood logs are indistinguishable from other non-protected wood species. However, it can be distinguished at the genetic level with high precision. Here, we are developing cheap, portable and easy-to-use biosensors, based on toehold switches. Our biosensor uses engineered molecular machinery of the common gut bacterium to sense nucleic acid signatures specific to the Rosewood tree. We demonstrate how to go from the design to the final application, identifying the trafficked Rosewood to the family, phylum, or the species level. Deployment of portable and cost-effective rosewood biosensors will enable on-site surveillance and help to protect this rare and valuable species. 
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ShanghaiTech China
Title
CESAR (Cas12a-based Efficient Solution to Antibiotic Resistance)

Abstract
This year, ShanghaiTech_China developed an enhanced method of detecting antibiotics and antibiotic-resistance genes (ARGs), first applying Cas12a to this field.Antibiotic-resistance has become a global health concern. The antibiotic-abuse in clinical therapies and industries has led to antibiotics' leakage and unexpected rapid spreading of ARGs, causing the emergence of drug-resistant microbes. In order to solve this problem, ShanghaiTech_China designed a new detection system -- CESAR (Cas12a-based Efficient Solution to Antibiotic-Resistance), to identify antibiotic-residue and ARGs.CESAR contains two devices with different purposes:(1) CESAR-I is a portable rapid-response device for on-site antibiotic-residue detection. By integrating the aptamer-sensing module, Cas12a-reporting module, and fluorescence-measuring module, it simplifies the process and lowers the cost of antibiotic-abuse surveillance.(2) CESAR-II is designed for doctors' detecting ARGs. Current techniques are either time-consuming or too expensive for hospitals in less-developed regions. CESAR-II is cost-effective and can help eliminate the medical disparity caused by unbalanced economic development.
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Aachen
Title
M.A.R.S. - Magnetic ATP Recycling System

Abstract
The complex regeneration of biochemical energy sources represents a cost-intensive hurdle for many production and research processes. With M.A.R.S., we want to establish an innovative strategy to create light-powered, mitochondrion-like protocells and a bioreactor that will recycle those cells by magnetism. Through the design of our reusable recycling system it will be able to power every ATP-driven enzyme cascade, making M.A.R.S. universally applicable. By extracting bacteriorhodopsin out of Halobacterium salinarum, a phototrophic archaea species, and combining it with an ATP synthase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae in self-produced polymersomes and liposomes, we get simple but effective chassis, which make it possible to cover the energy requirement of any enzyme reaction cascade. Binding those chassis to magnet particles via anchor peptides enables the reuse of the entire protocell system within the reactor by means of magnetic purification, whereby they can be fed directly into enzyme cascades, without depending on living cells.
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QHFZ-China
Title
Super-Serum for Engineered Bacteria

Abstract
Various engineered bacteria showed useful functions. However, the storage of these bacteria usually requires -80℃ refrigerators, which substantially limited their transportation and usages in daily life. Therefore, we decided to utilize TDPs from tardigrades (water bears) to supply a new storage method. By introducing the TDPs as the protectants into bacteria during lyophilization (freeze-drying), we could produce dry powder that can be stored at room temperature without any equipment. The powder can be stored at room temperature for a long time, without any usage of professional equipment. This year, we confirmed that certain TDPs have the ability to maintain the survival rate of E. coli. We also optimized the method by regulating the expression level and combining different TDPs. In addition, we proved the modularity and studied the degradation of TDPs after freeze-drying. We hope the method would promote the practical application of engineered bacteria. 
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GDSYZX
Title
Cultural Great Adventure to Rice

Abstract
Chinese Traditional medicine such as honeysuckle has excellent efficacy in treating Novel Corona Virus, many patent medicine are now commonly used for treatment of COVID-19. One of the main active ingredient of honeysuckle is Chlorogenic acid (CGA), which synthesized under the key enzyme HQT. We tried to transfer HQT of honeysuckle into rice to increase the rice seeds'content of CGA. Thus We constructed GluD-1pro::HQT and 35Spro::HQT vector with rice seed specific promoter GluD-1 and 35S promoter respectively. We transferred this two vectors into the rice protoplast individually. We detected the expression of HQT gene by Western Blot and synthesis of CGA by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in 35Spro::HQT vector transfected protoplasts as we expected. We provide a method that can increase the content of CGA in rice to improve human immunity.
[Go to Wiki](https://2020.igem.org/Team:GDSYZX)

SJTU-software
Title
RICAID

Abstract
China has a miserable memory of suffering poverty and starving. On the other hand, China has been making rapid progress in tackling hunger. Thirty years ago, one in three Chinese people was hungry. Today, less than one in 10 is hungry. No other country has helped so many people out of hunger in such a short period as China. Encouraged by the scientists and their contributions in China, our project will provide a lot of new knowledge of rice genetics and provide a solid theoretical foundation for rice breeding. Our project will be designed to help experimental research of stress-tolerance related to one of Oryza sativa L., commonly named rice. We will set up a database including gene, RNA-seq, protein information, etc. of Oryza sativa and also help to evaluate and tag the undiscovered genes so that we can recommend genes most possibly related to stress-tolerance to researchers. 
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ICS BKK
Title
Project Trojan Horse

Abstract
Our project aims to treat tonsillitis utilizing phage therapy as an alternative to antibiotics, whose drawback is resistance. Our ultimate goal is to create a mouthwash containing engineered Lactococcus lactis strains capable of releasing a phage to deactivate Streptococcus pyogenes. For computational lab, we modified over 300 strains of Phage P2, natural phage of Lactococcus lactis, to bind to S. pyogenes and achieved the highest binding affinity of -6.38 kcal/mol, compared with the original affinity of -4.50 kcal/mol between P2 and S. pyogenese. For the wet lab approach, we conducted biopanning, a screening method to identify peptides with high affinity to a given target, on Staphylococcus aureus, a common virulent gram-positive bacteria in respiratory tracts. We successfully binded one strand of Phage M13 to S. aureus. The successful binding results in both approaches lay a foundation for next year's modification of bacteriophage-containing bacteria in mouthwash delivery.
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Grenoble Alpes
Title
Innovative biotreatment for P.aeruginosa biofilm infections using an engineered E.coli

Abstract
We aimed at conceiving an engineered e.coli able to sense P.aeruginosa's biofilm and settle on it. Then, thanks to a synchronized lysis system, therapeutic molecules will be released to destroy P.aeruginosa and its biofilm. Our bacteria named Pyobusters works thanks to a complex genetic network based on the quorum sensing and designed by our biologists.To test the effectiveness of our therapeutic , our engineers conceived a testing bench able to emulate the different infection sites of P.aeruginosa. This way, we can monitor our therapeutic bacteria and train themselves in diverse fields. We succeeded in building a functional testing bench and delivered proofs of concept for several pieces of our genetic network. Further experiments and researches will be needed to test and unveil the full potential of our innovative treatment.
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Patras
Title
Hippocrates: Genomic Analysis & Artificial Intelligence at your heart's disposal

Abstract
According to the World Health Organization, cardiovascular diseases are one of the main causes of death worldwide due to the blood's high LDL cholesterol level. Statins are the drug category that is administered to regulate the levels of LDL cholesterol. However, 1/3 of patients do not respond effectively, resulting in several side effects. There are human genes that regulate a particular drug's metabolism. Depending on individuals' genetic profiles, the required therapeutic drug-dose can be accurately determined by available but optional tests. The SLCO1B1 gene is involved in the uptake of statins by liver cells. So, we present an innovative, time-saving, and portable genotyping method based on BentoLab (iGEM UCL 2013) for detecting genome polymorphism related to statins' metabolism, combined with Artificial Intelligence, to make a fast and accurate analysis of results to facilitate those who perform the test.
[Go to Wiki](https://2020.igem.org/Team:Patras)

Aix-Marseille
Title
Make some Rham-Noise

Abstract
Since the 70's green algae have been proliferating and forming what are called green tides on certain beaches in France, but also in China and the United States. This is mainly due to nitrogen-rich fertilizers used in intensive agricultureThe green algae on the beach decompose and produce hydrogen sulfide a deadly gas for animals and humans. One very promising route for recovery is the production of bioethanol that could be blended with gasoline and used by adapted vehicles.The objective of our project is to define an efficient process to transform ulvan, a sugar polymer present in large quantities in the wall of Ulva into rhamnose and other fermentable sugars using the enzymes from Formosa Agariphila inserted in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and then transform it into bioethanol using the fermentation capacity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipitis. Thanks to this Ulva could become a renewable and profitable source of energy.
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FDR-HB Peru
Title
Fishing for Cadmium

Abstract
Our project seeks to tackle the issue of cadmium contamination in fishmeal. We chose this issue because it affects the health of humans, ecosystems, and our local economy. To tackle this issue we have designed a plasmid capable of detecting the concentration of cadmium in blended fish. We have plans to implement a cell free system to make our solution more accessible to fishermen as well as an affordable heated shaking incubator to make the culturing of bacteria easier. Lastly, we have taken strides to make science education more accessible for young adults in Peru, by creating videos, evaluating articles for a young science journal, and subtitling our previous TEDx talk.  
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CAU China
Title
Abaddon Remedy

Abstract
In Revelation, Abaddon is the king of locusts who brought disasters to the world. In fact, locust swarms have caused chaos throughout history. To solve the problem of food insecurity caused by locust, CAU_China did project: ABADDON REMEDY. We are interested in finding a efficient biopesticide which can kill locust based on RNAi. We hope that ABADDON REMEDY will bring us a world with less locusts, and also less pesticide contamination.
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TJUSLS China
Title
PET-CRUSHER

Abstract
PETase has the highest degradation activity of highly crystallized PET of all PET-degrading enzymes reported to date. However, its low thermal stability limits its ability for efficient enzymatic degradation. Considering the glass transition temperature of PET is around 75°C, above which the polyester chain of PET performs in a high elastic state and the degradation is promoted, we accordingly modify PETase with a series of rational protein engineering strategy to enhance its thermal stability and therefore improve degradation efficiency. Variants are screened and verified through a series of bioinformatics strategy including computational evaluation, molecular visualization, docking and molecular dynamics simulation. Particularly, a variant with 12 mutations is expected to have a Tm value of 80.08°C, increased by 31.27°C in comparison with PETaseWT. Our project helps to increase the possibility of achieving the biodegradation of highly crystallized PET, contributing to solving environmental and health problems caused by the abuse of PET.
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MIT MAHE
Title
Breaking Bond

Abstract
Pollution is a direct result of man's ever-increasing need for natural resources and energy, one of the notorious pollutants being – mercury. Mercury in water bodies is converted by anaerobic microbes into methylmercury. This toxic compound, gets Biomagnified and Bioaccumulated through the aquatic trophic levels. At the level of humans, it can be dangerously high. It is no coincidence that this was responsible for one of the world's worst environmental disasters, i.e. the Minamata Disease. Previous projects attempted to solve the problem of methylmercury poisoning using bioremediation - converting free methylmercury (95% absorption) to elemental mercury (<0.01% absorption). However, these don't account for the methylmercury already inside millions of fish. We wish to develop a probiotic bacterium with similar capabilities, this exploits the fact that Hg is inert in the gut and prevents absorption of organic mercury. We will also have a system that will help in reducing mercury-induced inflammations.
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BIT
Title
Dr. Watson:j.o.h.n:judge of COVID- 19 handling

Abstract
Since the outbreak of the COVID-19 at the end of 2019, it has caused great harm to public health safety. Although the current detection methods are diverse, most of the main applications are hospitals with certain qualifications and conditions. This is no small challenge for people in developed, developing, and underdeveloped countries. Therefore, it is very necessary to have a simple operation and easy-to-carry testing equipment that can be used in communities and rural hospitals. Therefore, this year's BIT team is committed to designing related integrated detection systems. Based on the designed biosensing module, centrifugal chip module, smart phone module, and the COVID-19 related protein markers (Convert it into a nucleic acid signal) are fast, sensitive, portable and low-cost. Testing, providing effective testing programs for the new coronavirus in places with low medical testing resources.
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Tongji China
Title
SHARK: Seek Heme And Reflect cracK

Abstract
Chronic lower gastrointestinal bleeding is a manifestation of lower gastrointestinal disorders. It features small amount of bleeding and patients' unawareness. To locate the bleeding site, endoscope is commonly used in clinics. However, endoscope puts heavy discomfort to patients and the time-consuming process postpones subsequent treatment, which becomes great obstacles of diagnosis and therapy.To solve this throng problem, team Tongji China designed Hetoul, the engineered bacteria that can realize more rapid localization of the bleeding site in lower gastrointestinal tract. The mechanism is: Hetoul recognizes the heme released by broken red blood cells. When heme is recognized, Hetoul will express gas vesicle protein, which can be detected by ultrasonic imaging. The location of Hetoul shows the location of bleeding site, which can provide guide to subsequent treatment. Further, Hetoul can also play the role of a diagnosis tool for lower gastrointestinal diseases like colorectal cancer.
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MSP-Maastricht
Title
MSP-Maastricht combating the OPC invasive species with Oak Shield, a biological pesticide

Abstract
In the past few decades, the Oak Processionary Caterpillar (OPC) has spread towards Northern parts of Europe, far from its natural southern predators. This invasive species is noxious for oaks trees but also dangerous for animals and humans due to its toxic bristle.Therefore, this year's MSP-Maastricht iGEM team has decided to join the fight against the OPC. Our aim is to provide an eco-friendly pesticide - Oak Shield - specifically targeting the caterpillar as current pesticides harm other insects. We identified potential target sequences unique to the OPC genome and planned to modify bacteria to make them produce interfering RNA complementary to those sequences. Algorithms allowed us to estimate the decrease in population.Prior to Oak Shield we started Geneducation, a YouTube channel focusing on the popularization of syn-bio and genetic engineering. Additionally, we launched a proceedings journal for iGEM teams, containing peer-reviewed articles from more than 30 teams!
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Chalmers-Gothenburg
Title
No Time to Waste

Abstract
Generating 70 million tonnes of textile waste each year, the fashion industry oftentimes goes unmentioned in the climate debates. Yet, the great environmental problem posed by the fashion persists and is further aggravated by the inclusion of synthetic textile blends, which renders a large portion of garments un-recyclable. Our teams' attempt at tackling this problem focuses on the addition of the synthetic fibre elastane to garments, an addition that makes fibre separation a difficult process, and as such, poses a large problem for recycling. By including nine different enzymes to the bacteria E. Coli, our team attempted to create an enzymatic system capable of degrading the elastane fibre through biological means, effectively providing a biological solution to an environmental problem. A large part of our project has also been to communicate this large waste impact of the fashion industry, and to show that we really have No Time to Waste.
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KEYSTONE
Title
B.B.Bin

Abstract
The aim of our project is to address PET plastic recycling coverage flaws as well as improving the tourists' experiences through fragrance in natural tourist areas. It will incorporate elements that will educate the public about the importance of plastic degradation and environmental protection. The accomplishment of the our iGEM project this year has two main sectors-- the experiments, which includes the fragrance and plastic degradation, and the hardware. The first experiment was used to insert leaf compost cutinase genes into the E. coli and optimize conditions for translation of the LCC enzyme as well as the conditions for degradation of the PET plastic. Another experiment was inserting the geraniol synthase and linalool synthase gene to produce the linalool fragrance. The mechanical trash can that we designed will assemble these synthetic biology part to degrade plastic. It is comprised of three parts— the shredder, the power source, and the decomposer.
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ECUST China
Title
D-E-tector for SARS-CoV-2

Abstract
SARS-CoV-2 is highly transmissible and pathogenic. In addition to the nature of RNA virus with high mutation rate, antigenic drift is the main evolutionary mechanism for SARS-CoV-2. Its wide-spreading has currently resulted in the evolutionary variants different from the originate isolate. Therefore, to curb this pandemic, effective surveillance of circulating viruses is much more urgent. We developed a high throughput POCT platform for the SARS-CoV-2 detection with the help of DMF. A nanomachine called DNA Walker can amplify the region-specific sequence of the virus genome in the specimen. And then it will be read out by E-CRISPR, which can output an electric signal by a Cas9 nickase and corresponding electrode. We are targeting not only the detection of COVID-19 viruses with alarming dangerous mutations, but also differentiating other related viruses and pathogens. This is not only for managing today's pandemic, but also for the potential outbreaks of other coronaviruses.
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UNILausanne
Title
B.O.T: Bacterial Oscillation Therapy

Abstract
Colorectal cancer incidence has heavily increased over past decades, notably in more-developed regions. It is now the third-most common cancer worldwide. Recovery still relies heavily on standard chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery. A promising new approach in cancer treatment is chronotherapy. By administering drugs according the circadian rhythm, chronotherapy aims at maximizing efficacy and minimizing side effects. For our project, we introduced a synthetic circuit producing oscillations into E. coli Nissle 1917, a tumour-targeting probiotic strain of E. coli, to explore the potential benefits of chronotherapy. The final engineered strain delivers azurin, an anti-cancer peptide in an periodic manner. In the interest of biosafety, we also built a kill-switch to be incorporated into the final design. 
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Tongji Software
Title
Synthesis Navigator

Abstract
Nowadays,there is a rising demand for designing and implementing metabolic pathways. However, Some biology researchers are faced with complicated metabolic pathways just like sailors trapped in the ocean, and our team's integrated platform, "Synthesis navigator”, can assist them in the design of metabolic pathways. The first part of our project is an integrated database named “Synthetic Bay “, which contains much more data than last year, for synthetic biology sailors to get supplied. Secondly, in order to construct a route in metabolism oceans, synthetic biology sailors can input the starting and target compound (or one of them) then Synthesis navigator can search out a number of possible metabolic pathways from the database. Last, what counts is that facing unknown ocean environment, sailors can utilize the Hybrid Metabolic Simulation to predict the metabolic situation of chassis organisms thus avoiding the frustrated adventure in metabolic ocean.
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UPF Barcelona
Title
Hormonic: restoring thyroid homeostasis via an intein-mediated biosensor

Abstract
One-third of the treated hypothyroidism patients do not respond correctly to current therapies. To solve that, a system capable of restoring hormonal feedback was designed, offering an alternative to the 10% of Spaniards and 5% of the global population that suffer from this endocrine disorder. Its functioning is based on our successfully engineered intein-mediated Escherichia coli biosensor, which showed a great response to distinct T3 thyroid hormone levels giving rise to different superfolder GFP concentrations. This was designed to be coupled to a PID controller, which computes the dosage that compensates for hormonal disbalances. As a proof of concept for the validation of this regulatory mechanism, a lactone cell circuit incorporating a turbidostat was developed, showing a high correlation between the experimental and modelling results. Finally, a detailed future implementation plan was defined so that it included the necessary steps towards a feasible implementation of this innovative treatment.
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NTHU Taiwan
Title
BioSquad

Abstract
Quantum dots are zero-dimensional tiny speck of material effectively concentrated into a single point known as artificial atoms which can revolutionize everything ranging from home lights and computer displays to solar cells and biological warfare detectors. Our Team NTHU_Taiwan design a concept for biosynthesis of quantum dots utilizing industrial heavy metal containing wastewater. Hereby we hypothesized to gain multiple benefits from single project. We first aimed of bio-synthesizing quantum dots using E-coli. Secondly, we planned to use cadmium rich industrial wastewater as a source of metal ions. Under normal conditions bacteria itself cannot manage efficient internalization of metals which might leads to cellular oxidative stress and bacterial death. So, we used gene editing techniques and promoter genes to control internalization of cadmium ion and production of cadmium sulfide quantum dots. We are successful on genetically modifying E coli, to seek highly efficient productivity of QDs. 
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SZPT-CHINA
Title
Toothkeeper——A novel scheme for early diagnosis and care of dental caries

Abstract
Tooth decay is a chronic disease caused by dental plague turning sugars into acid. The prevalence of tooth decay has been increasing steadily in the past 20 years and gradually becoming a major global health problem. Several research articles signify that Streptococcus mutans is the major pathogen of dental caries. This year the SZPT-CHINA team will present an environment friendly and effective method to solve this problem. We have used synthetic biology methods to design an E. coil detector and a point-of-care test(POCT) device to detect caries, and an antibacterial gum to prevent caries in advance.After using our product, we can prevent dental caries effectively. This product will provide an economical solution and will improve the quality of life.
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NCKU Tainan
Title
Eye kNOw: Envisioning the future of glaucoma treatment

Abstract
Glaucoma is characterized by progressive loss of visual field without any early symptoms. A leading cause of irreversible blindness, glaucoma affects millions of people worldwide and causes heavy burden on healthcare systems. The only proven effective treatment is reducing the patients' intraocular pressure (IOP), which is usually done by providing eyedrops with IOP-lowering effect, like nitric oxide. However, due to ineffective IOP management and warning strategies, blindness is still a problem. Therefore, iGEM NCKU-Tainan developed a revolutionary solution, Eye kNOw, a pair of contact lenses that contains engineered bacteria producing nitric oxide in response to IOP fluctuation. We also developed Eye Screen, an affordable and portable detection device that utilizes ultrasound to measure IOP and identify the high-risk groups. With Eye kNOw and Eye Screen, IOP can be controlled in a real-time manner, and glaucoma can be detected and monitored with a low-cost device, saving more people from life-long darkness.
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Nanjing NFLS
Title
MIDAS: MFCs Improved in Different Aspects Safely

Abstract
Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) are devices that convert chemical energy (even from waste water, applied in pollution treatment) to electrical energy by the action of microorganisms. In our project, we engineer electricity-production-bacteria (like Pseudomonas aeruginosa), by over-expressing genes of phzM, nadE, and rhlA (respectively responsible for three crucial electron producing processes in P. aeruginosa), to improve the electricity output of bacteria incubated MFCs. To ensure safety, we introduce a light controlled kill-switch, “supernova” gene: when bacteria release into the bright environment from the dark chamber of MFCs, light will activate the gene which produces superoxide radical anions to kill the cells. Meanwhile, we intend to modify the hardware of MFCs: infuse certain concentration of heavy metal ions into the anode to facilitate the electricity generation, and use graphite combined with Mn2+/Fe2+ as the cathode so that the cathode can create Fenton reagent to degrade some recalcitrant chemicals.
[Go to Wiki](https://2020.igem.org/Team:Nanjing_NFLS)

ULaval
Title
aSAP: a solution against maple polymers

Abstract
Maple syrup has a great cultural and economic importance for Canada. However, several issues can lower the quality of the final product. We engaged in conversations with experts to identify potential solutions to these problems, ultimately targeting ropy maple syrup. Ropy syrup has a very high viscosity, is not marketable, and damages maple syrup production equipment, which results in important economic losses, particularly for smaller producers. It is caused by the presence of dextrans produced by specific types of bacteria in the sap. aSAP, by team iGEM ULaval 2020-2021, will aim to develop an enzymatic treatment to degrade dextran and turn ropy maple syrup into a marketable product. Since maple syrup is stored at room temperatures, we are planning to use a dextranase from a psychrophile (cold-adapted) bacteria. In 2020, we have validated our candidate enzyme in silico, planned experiments to characterize and optimize it, and designed our implementation proposal.
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BIT-China
Title
Lemon CP

Abstract
Our team BIT-China designed and constructed a double oscillation dynamic regulation system to produce flavonoids. By using this system, we can use an intelligent dynamic regulation method to regulate E. coli and Yeast, to match the growth rate, upstream, and downstream pathways of the two. It also means that we successfully produce saccharoid using a combination of E. coli and Yeast's advantages in their respective production processes.
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FCB-UANL
Title
Synbiofoam: a synthetic alternative to fluorosurfactants

Abstract
Mexico's northern biogeographic region is home to wide biodiversity, which is at risk due to the frequent forest wildfires. One of the strategies to combat fires involves the use of firefighting foams, but these usually contain fluorosurfactants (PFAS), which pose an environmental threat. Therefore, our goal is to produce an eco-friendly alternative to this type of threatening substances. To do so, we plan to employ synbio tools to produce four of the Ranaspumin proteins present in the bubble nests of Leptodactilidae frogs, and regulating B. subtilis' natural complex metabolic pathway in charge of synthesizing its biofilm's matrix components for us to substitute PFAS as foaming agents in firefighting mixtures. Not only will our project aid the environment, but it will also allow underfunded fire departments to access these tools because, as there are no foam producers in this country, current foams are very expensive due to importation costs.
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GA State SW Jiaotong
Title
Syn-biodinium

Abstract
Coral bleaching, the loss of necessary algal symbionts for the survival of cnidarian reeforganisms, is a disastrous environmental issue that is mainly caused by anthropogenic globalwarming. Genetically modifying corals' symbiotic microalgae, Symbiodinium, to betterwithstand heat stress may combat coral bleaching.We have attempted several transformations, creatively designed an algae house, and builta temperature-ecological amplitude model based on the Shelford's Law of Tolerance to find thebest conditions for culturing Symbiodinium. In addition, we have successfully designed arecombinant plasmid by inserting a GUS reporter gene and the most appropriate modified heatresistant gene, heat shock factor, into a dinoflagellate-optimized expression DinoIII plasmid. Wewill perform a biolistics gene gun-mediated transformation. Because the commercial gene gun isso expensive, we will use 2018 iGEM team Worcester's design to build our own gene gun.Hopefully, the corals will uptake the modified algae, increasing their resistance to bleaching.
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SYSU-CHINA
Title
Semi-rational evolution of ADAR1 inhibitors

Abstract
RNA binding proteins(RBPs) play an essential role in tumors and neurodegenerative diseases, while most of them lack of effective inhibitors. Since directed evolution has shown its high efficiency, this year we provided a sample combining rational design and directed evolution to obtain dsRNA inhibitors of RBPs and took ADAR1, a dsRNA adenosine deaminase, as an example. In our project, an algorithm-guided model was trained from natural substrates of ADAR1 and used to established a candidate dsRNA library. Those candidates were connected to a self-splicing stem-loop sequence and transferred into HeLa cells with toxic genes regulated by ADAR1 and Tet-on system, which only survived when endogenous ADAR1 was inhibited by transferred dsRNAs. Efficient substrates were extracted and used to train the model above for the next round. Through the continuous cycle of this screening process, we could obtain high-efficiency inhibitors of ADAR1 efficiently, and extend this model to other RBPs.
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PuiChing Macau
Title
FirE. coli : Engineering E. coil to produce safe and eco-friendly flame retardant proteins

Abstract
Current flame retardant materials are known to be hazardous to human body and our environment. To solve this problem, we here developed Eco-friendly and harmless flame retardant E. coli. While previous iGEM teams and research groups attempted to produce flame retardant proteins, the proteins they produced cannot retain on the surfaces of objects and can be washed away easily, precluding the application of these proteins. To address the problem, we engineered E. coli to produce flame retardant proteins (SR or casein) fused with surface adhering proteins (cellulose binding domain or mussel adhesive proteins). Thereby, we improved previous iGEM flame retardant systems, which contain only flame retardant proteins. We here proved the protein expression, fire retardancy and sustainability of our flame retardant systems, matching our previous modelling results. Additionally, we also engineered an easy-to-make vertical burning test, helping us and future iGEM teams to test flame retardants.
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AFCM-Egypt
Title
Neo-epitope discovery for DNA-launched RNA replicons: paving the way to efficient breast cancer vaccination

Abstract
Triple negative breast cancer is one of the most aggressive breast cancer subtypes. It is characterized by a generally poor prognosis and strong resistance to traditional therapies. This season, we focused on designing a novel immunotherapeutic approach involving DNA-launched RNA Replicons (DREP). We utilized our hotspot detection tool, “Custommune”, to generate a list of candidate neo-epitopes from clinically prioritized neoantigens thus reducing the need for extensive sequencing approaches. After in silico validation of our generated neo-epitope predictions, we devised a DREP-based platform to effectively deliver our multi-neo-epitope vaccine. The platform utilizes the inherent self-amplification ability of RNA-replicons to ensure enhanced neo-antigen uptake and presentation leading to the mounting of efficient cellular and humoral immune responses against TNBC. Embedded with optimized subgenomic regulation and linker-peptides alongside glycine-alanine repeats (GAr), a miRNA-based immune evasion mechanism and an OFF-switch, our platform is predicted to be highly safe and efficient through experimentally-driven mathematical simulations.
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Thessaly
Title
Amalthea: a modular platform for monitoring gastrointestinal health

Abstract
Amalthea is a complete, personalized, modular platform, which provides diagnosis, evaluation of the gut flora, and treatment of IBDs. A non-invasive encapsulated detection module, consisting of a genetically engineered bacteria-based system and an electronic system, will identify metabolite deficiencies directly correlated to IBDs, that may lead to malnutrition. Exploiting a bio-electronic interface to enable real-time monitoring on the patient's smartphone. Based on this personalized data, a biosynthetic module will respond with selective production of the missing metabolites, thus eliminating that nutritional deficit and relieving the patient from the symptoms. Our product is designed according to healthcare experts and international standards, to ensure biosafety. With this work, we aspire to provide cost-efficient and innovative solutions for detecting intestinal deformities and improving the gut microbiome, while facilitating one of humans' essential needs – to enjoy one's food.
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BNU-China
Title
Automatic Barcode Creator (ABC)

Abstract
Tracing the lineage of cells is essential in answering diverse and fundamental questions in biology. In recent years, the method combing CRISPR/Cas9 and barcode, a DNA sequence as genetic marker, has attracted extensive attention in lineage tracing. However, the diversity of barcodes is limited and the constitutively expressed Cas9 consumes barcodes quickly. These make barcodes infeasible for the tracking purpose after several generations. We propose to track more generations by two ways. First, we build an inducible expression module of Cas9 in association with cell division to label each cell automatically without wasting barcodes. Second, we use homing guide RNA (hgRNA) to replace the small guide RNA (sgRNA) so that the diversity of barcodes can be increased greatly. In order to make the barcode sequence read at RNA level, we design a double promoter module, so that we can obtain the lineage information together with transcriptomic information.
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Groningen
Title
RootPatch

Abstract
Potatoes are an important crop for many cultures. They provide more carbohydrates, proteins, minerals and vitamins per unit area of land and time as compared to other crops and are therefore a popular choice for many farmers and consumers. However, the growth of the potato plant is severely affected by parasitic nematodes that feed on the roots of the plant. Per year, around 460 million dollar is lost due to these nematodes. Our project RootPatch provides a solution to this problem. RootPatch is a bacterial layer around the roots of the potato plant. The bacteria in RootPatch are engineered to produce neuropeptide-like proteins, a class of neuropeptides which specifically influence the behaviour of the parasitic nematodes, making them avoid the root system of the plant. To guarantee safety, the engineered bacteria are dependent on the potato plant, making sure that they stay where they are supposed to be. 
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Tuebingen
Title
PacMn: Phytochelatin-actuated complexation of Manganese

Abstract
Environmental heavy metal pollution has raised concerns for water quality and human health. In fact, it was found that due to climate change, and thus, rising groundwater temperatures in Germany, manganese (Mn2+) concentrations in local water resources increase. Accordingly, we propose an approach for the measurement and retention of Mn2+-ions in which we use genetically engineered E. coli as a bifunctional biosensor. Our system contains a riboswitch, which triggers a fluorescent signal in the presence of Mn2+-Ions, in combination with induced complexion for clearance of Mn2+-Ions with phytochelatin proteins. Due to its sequence complexity, we modified the phytochelatin sequence in silico, and modeled the variants' structures to subsequently evaluate their stability using Molecular Dynamics simulation. Upon successful cloning, the functionality and detection range of our system is assessed using titrated Mn2+, prior to investigating the signal kinetics and effects of cell density, as well as heavy metal retention in vivo.
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Hong Kong CityU
Title
Plastilicious Coli: a rational design approach for biodegradation of plastic wastes

Abstract
The extensive use of plastics in recent decades has led to an increasing amount of plastic wastes which consist of non-biodegradable and non-incinerable plastics such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polyurethane (PUR). These wastes are discarded into the environment causing serious environmental pollution problems. This has inspired our team to search for effective scientific options to help reduce plastic pollution. In this project, we have adopted an in-silico mutagenesis approach to design two PUR-degrading enzymes - papain and polyurethanase esterase A (PueA) - that could be used to enhance PET and PUR biodegradation. Ultimately, we are aiming to construct a multi plastic-degrading E. coli bug by combining the genes of the two mutant enzymes (papain and PueA) with the well-studied polyethylene terephthalate hydrolase (PETase) gene in a single biobrick. It is hoped that this technology will contribute to reducing plastic wastes and help better protect our environment. 
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BITSPilani-Goa India
Title
SugarGain

Abstract
Sugarcane faces the issue of post-harvest sucrose deterioration. This loss is caused by the activity of an enzyme called invertase. Post harvest, invertase cleaves sucrose which reduces sugar retrieval rates by up to 10.25%. We wanted to devise a solution that initiated grassroots-level changes for farmers. The farmer would administer our novel polymer-based inoculant, which would release our bacteria into the stem of the sugarcane, by employing an injector mechanism. Once inside, our genetic circuit inside the bacterial E.coli chassis is designed to exhibit anti-invertase activity, regulated by the amount of fructose inside the sugarcane in a continuous and controlled manner, through a biosensor mechanism. We propose to use a modified type II ccdA-ccdB toxin-antitoxin system as our kill switch that is activated upon exposure to atmospheric concentrations of oxygen. We have also kept in mind the significance of biosafety and designed a robust three-tier failsafe mechanism. 
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NFLS
Title
A System for Degrading Waste Cellulose and Generating Electricity

Abstract
Things made from cellulose can be seen everywhere in our life, such as paper and straw. Although some methods for recycling used paper have reached good efficiency, there is still large amounts of waste paper that cannot reach the standard of being recycled and have no chance to be put into a second use together with many materials composed of cellulose. Some of those cellulose materials can only be buried or burnt, which creates pollution for the environment. To deal with those materials, we come up with an idea of using genetically engineered E.colis to transform cellulose into glucose with the help of enzymes, including endoglucanases(cex), exoglucanases(cen), and β-glucosidases, and the E.colis generate electricity in Microbial Fuel Cells. We hope to imply this synthetic biological method to deal with waste cellulose and more environmental issues.
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BOKU-Vienna
Title
Phangel – Taking Phage Therapy Ahead

Abstract
Our vision is to alleviate bacterial infections and their systemic consequences by not only eliminating hostile bacteria but also, in a second step, capturing their toxic components released during bacterial lysis. Our goal is to recombinantly engineer a T7 bacteriophage that by infection forces its target bacterium to produce gelsolin, a protein able to bind the endotoxin LPS.Firstly, we designed our experiments in silico to contribute our parts to the iGEM registry. We then cloned the plasmids containing the recombination system necessary for engineering our phage. The genes to be inserted into the phage genome were amplified. Additionally, we designed a safety measure to inhibit the engineered phage's ability to reproduce autonomously.To support our experimental findings we modelled the interaction between T7 bacteriophages and E.coli.Furthermore, to gain more insight into the biology of the T7 bacteriophage, we collaborated with team TU Delft to characterize the wildtype.
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Queens Canada
Title
Velcrion - A transdermal biosensor to detect critical metabolites in chronic kidney disease.

Abstract
Team Queens_Canada will be designing a novel transdermal biosensor for point-of-care diagnostic quantification of phosphate, potassium, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) for chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Knowledge of the concentration of these analytes is critical for guiding effective treatments and improving patient outcomes. We will generate genetically encoded Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) sensors by fusing the N- and C-termini of phosphate-binding protein (PBP), potassium-binding protein (KBP), PTH 1 receptor (PTH1R), and α-Klotho to fluorescent proteins (FPs). To quantify physiologically relevant levels of phosphate, potassium, PTH and FGF23, highly optimized mNeonGreen and mCherry will be used as the FPs. Site-directed mutagenesis will be employed on protein-fluorophore constructs to add a Cysteine residue, to which a glutamate (E)/ lysine (K) coiled-coil system will be added to immobilize the construct onto a microfluidic surface. Through frequent monitoring and early disease detection, we hope to revolutionize CKD diagnostics. 
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William and Mary
Title
TheraPUFA

Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has emphasized the urgent need for broad-spectrum antiviral therapies. To address this need, we have 1) designed an antiviral nasal probiotic and 2) investigated its feasibility through extensive mathematical modeling. The designed probiotic secretes polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which may lyse viral envelopes and suppress replication by positive strand RNA viruses, in addition to regulating inflammation. Our smart probiotic is designed to sense excessive inflammation by detecting high levels of TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma, and to respond by switching PUFA production from arachidonic acid to anti-inflammatory docosahexaenoic acid. To determine our probiotic's feasibility, our mathematical model quantifies the amount of PUFA produced by the probiotic, and how secreted PUFA affects viral load and cytokine production. This complex model extends beyond current probiotic models by accounting for spatial heterogeneity and transcriptional stochasticity. With our novel design and rigorous modeling, TheraPUFA provides a framework for implementing smart, living antiviral therapies. 
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Nantes
Title
A3 Project - Algal Acquired Acid

Abstract
Green macroalgae (Ulva spp.) have been poisoning oceanic coastlines for decades through the production of a toxic gas: hydrogen sulfide (H2S). The collection of algae is currently a costly and unprofitable process. Our project aims to enhance the value of the collected algae. To do so, we plan to target ulvan, the main component of green algae's cell wall, using degradation enzymes and recombinant sulfatases. Once produced by transformed bacteria, the enzymes will be added to a tank of a bioreactor, filled with algae and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRBs) which are responsible for the production of H2S. The H2S produced in the tank will be transformed into sulfuric acid (H₂SO₄), a useful compound for many industries such as the production of detergents, textiles and many others products.Our project could constitute a proof of concept for a subsequent industrial optimization.
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IISER-Tirupati India
Title
In-situ Bioremediation of Antibiotics for Combating Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR)

Abstract
The irresponsible and off-label use of antibiotics in animal husbandry as growth promoters have contributed significantly to antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Phage therapy, the current best solution, is also failing due to CRISPR and other innate bacterial defences. To combat antibiotic pollution, we have developed a proof-of-concept model to engineer E. coli harnessing a two-component sulfonamide degrading system that degrades the sulfonamides present in poultry waste below the Predicted No Effect Concentrations, preventing selection for resistant strains. Our system renders the poultry waste antibiotic-free and makes it safe to use as manure. Surface exclusion genes have been integrated into the bacteria to reduce horizontal gene transfer. A user modulated ‘kill switch' with a DNA degrading mechanism is also engineered to prevent the escape of AMR genes to the environment and ensure biosafety. This proof-of-concept model can be extended for other antibiotics by switching the antibiotic degrading genes involved.
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Athens
Title
Morphæ: An engineered biofilm for the production of a novel structurally coloured material

Abstract
Colours in nature can be the result either of chemical pigments or of the physical structure of surfaces. Certain bacterial strains exhibit structural colour when they form biofilms, a phenomenon caused by spatial geometries in the micron scale. In this iGEM project we utilize bacteria from the Flavobacterium genus that display structural colour naturally, to create a material that is coloured due to that property. In order for ​Flavobacteriia to secrete a cellulose based extracellular matrix that retains this property, genes from the bcs operon of Komagataeibacter xylinus will be transferred. A biophysical mass-spring model of the cell will be developed to simulate the gliding motility mechanism based on the mechanical interactions between the cells, along with a simulation predicting the optical properties of a known structure. A kinetic modeling for the cellulose biosynthesis will also be implemented to better predict the final structure of the biomaterial.
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SHSID
Title
Efficient Detection of Listeria monocytogenes by a Cas12a-crRNA complex and ssDNA

Abstract
Food is usually stored in the fridge to keep it as fresh as possible and far from the contamination of bacteria. However, a species of poorly known bacteria, Listeria monocytogenes, is able to endure cold conditions, and causes serious health risks such as fever, diarrhea, miscarriage, and even death. Unfortunately, as we learned from browsing related articles, field research, and surveys, modern detection methods are all very costly and time-consuming. So, we aim to create a biological kit, made out of crRNA, Cas12a, ssDNA, that allows for efficient detection of L. monocytogenes. crRNA and Cas12a will form a complex, and when crRNA binds to the oligo sequences that model the DNA of L. monocytogenes, it will activate the Cas12a protein, thus causing Cas12a to cut the surrounding ssDNA which produces visible fluorescence. Ultimately, our kit is able to produce a fluorescence after 10 minutes of exposure to oligo sequences.
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NOFLS YZ
Title
Discovery of FXR antagonist against T2DM

Abstract
Farnesoid X receptor (FXR), as a member of nuclear receptors is tightly associated with glucose metabolism. Accumulated evidence indicated that FXR antagonist relates to the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), although the related mechanisms remain unclear. Therefore, our aim is to screen a small molecule FXR antagonist as a probe to explore the mechanism of FXR regulating glucose metabolism. Here, we used AlphaScreen assay to screen FXR antagonist. Among the compounds, H7 was finally selected for its highly antipathogenic activity against FXR. Finally, H7 antagonized GW4064-induced reporter gene stimulation in transactivation assay, indicating that H7 was a FXR antagonist.
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Xiamen city
Title
Construct Probiotic E. coli that Cleans Reactive Oxygen Species in the Gut

Abstract
Sleep deprivation causes death by accumulating Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) in the gut. One way of preventing the accumulation is gut-targeted transgenic expression of antioxidant enzymes. Therefore, we use probiotics living in the gut to express Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and Catalase (CAT) to eliminate the excess ROS. We first overexpressed SOD and CAT in E. coli separately and purified the overexpressed proteins. Both proteins were overexpressed successfully in E. coli and functioned properly. Furthermore, using plasmid p15A, we constructed the E. coli with in vitro display technology. This E. coli is effective for cleaning ROS, so our experiment lays the foundation for cleaning ROS in the human gut.
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Nanjing high school
Title
“Accuriculture” --- with phosphorus solubilizing bacteria

Abstract
RePhos. is developing methods to make better use of phosphorus in soil. Our project aims to increase crop yield and minimize pollution caused by phosphorus runoffs. By genetically editing phosphorus solubilizing bacteria, we insert a gene important for bacteria's survivals. This can constrict the area where bacteria can survive, so they are only close to the rhizosphere. The products are fertilizer adjuvants for farmers and agent kits for scientists. These create a Smart and Accurate form of agriculture, called “accuriculture”. To provide practical solutions to the issue, we also researched the market and interviewed some target customers. We communicated with professors in the area in order to prepare a more useful product. Finally, we made a business plan to attract investors and funding. We provide a comprehensive solution that even has the practical potential to be applied on broader aspects. 
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Shanghai high school
Title
ER Sensor

Abstract
Exogenous endocrine disruptors are called environmental hormones. EDCs are compounds that affect metabolism. These substances mimic natural hormones or hinder the action of normal human hormones. EDC surged in the environment in the past decades. Chemical substances created by industrial world are the cause of environmental hormones. About 70 kinds of chemical substances are widely used in fungicides, preservatives, insecticides, pesticides, food additives, plastic products, and so forth. In addition, harmful substances are also detected from rivers to the ocean in the world. Over 30 types of endocrine hormones were detected from the seeping water at the industrial waste disposal site. Since estrogen in the environment causes severe endocrine disorders, threatening the health of the fetus and children (obesity caused by cancer and metabolic disorders is also thought to be linked), we aim to create an estrogen sensor, namely ER Sensor, to detect the estrogen in the environment around us. 
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Shanghai city
Title
AtreXtinct: To Find Efficient way of Detecting Herbicide Pollution Caused by Atrazine in the Environment

Abstract
Atrazine is a contaminant for natural resources, which is dangerous for both people and wildlife. To be specific, atrazine can lead to serious diseases like prostatic cancer and breast cancer. However, owing mainly to the superior efficacy and economy  of atrazine, the current policy in most countries is to strengthen registration instead of explicitly restrict the use of it. Furthermore, all the atrazine detection equipment in the market today have major flaws - expensiveness, heaviness, and difficulties in application. Thus, atrazine will leak into farms, lakes, and ocean without an effective and economical solution. To solve this problem, our team aims to envision a sytstem that degrades convert atrazine into cyanuric acid, which can be detected by human eyes under the condition of the excitation spectrum. In this way, it will be possible for us to create a convenient way to detect atrazine.
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まとめ

いかがでしたでしょうか?
大変多くのチームが、オリジナリティ溢れたプロジェクトを行っていることがわかっていただけたかと思います。本記事では、iGEM2020に出場したチームの1/4ほどのチームしかとりあげられておりません。さらに興味をもっていただいた方は、その他のバージョンも参考にしていただけたらと思います。

第一弾はこちらから
iGEM2020全チームプロジェクト概要 ~第一弾~
[翻訳版] iGEM2020全チームプロジェクト概要 ~第一弾~