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最終更新日 : 2021年11月13日

iGEM2021全チームプロジェクト概要 ~第一弾~

本記事は、iGEM 2021年に参加した全チームのプロジェクトについてまとめた記事の第一弾になります。(全四回の第一回)。
iGEM 2021では、どのようなテーマがあったのか網羅的にわかるようになっておりますので、ざっと眺めて見てはいかがでしょうか。


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iGEM2021全チームプロジェクト概要 ~第四弾~
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※本まとめは、全てのデータをiGEM2021のオープンなデータから取得しております。

データの見方

(例) チーム名(チームページリンク付き)
タイトル
要約
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このような構成で、全チームをまとめていきます。

チームリスト

UiOslo Norway
Title
PFASeOut

Abstract
PFAS is a collection of per- and polyfluoroakyl compounds that are water-repellent, which in ski wax gives the skis better gliding properties. The International Ski Federation (FIS) has banned the use of PFAS in ski wax during skiing competitions due to the toxic effects they have on the environment and on the health of ski wax appliers. For this ban to be effective and fair for the athletes, there must be a way to efficiently detect PFAS containing wax during competitions. Currently, there are no functioning test for field-use. To tackle this problem, we are using synthetic biology to develop such a detection device. Our detection method exploit two different genes from bacteria which can recognize PFAS compounds and cleave their C-F bond. The presence of PFAS compounds will be based on detection of released fluoride ions , either colorimetrically or by measuring changes in conductivity.  
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Manchester
Title
UriGel: Fighting Catheter Acquired Urinary Tract Infections With Engineered Bacteria

Abstract
Catheterization is required in many hospital patients, and long-term catheterization leads to catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) in most patients. Talks with doctors identified there was no system in place to effectively prevent CAUTIs. To address this issue, we designed a hydrogel coating containing engineered bacteria which would sense pathogens and secrete biofilm degrading enzymes, secrete inhibitors of virulent enzymes, express a binding domain to attach to the hydrogel and depend on the urinary tract environment for survival (kill switch). Mathematical modelling of our hydrogel found that our secreted products would efficiently diffuse through the hydrogel. We created a model for our antibiofilm mechanism that can be used by future teams with similar mechanisms. Molecular docking modelling identified a candidate virulent enzyme inhibitor. Finally, a urea- and a sarcosine-responsive promoter were characterised to validate our kill switch mechanism. Overall, we have successfully designed a potential solution to CAUTIs.
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HUST-China
Title
Mr.Tony

Abstract
An increasing number of people prefer perming or dyeing to add to their glamor and vigour, and existinghairdressing market scale in China alone is over 20 billion yuan, and that of overall beauty salon industryscale amounts to 380 billion yuan, according to a recent estimation. However, undesired health consequencesbrought by harmful chemicals used in perming and dyeing process are undisputable. Therefore, an optimizedhumanistic device for perming and dyeing based on engineered yeast producing natural pigments and short peptideswas designed by HUST-China to tackle with this problem, which can produce enzyme to catalyze natural pigmentprecursors into natural pigments and express short peptides with abundant sulfhydryl. A xylose responding systemwas also created to fade the pigments ,straighten the curled hair, and resume the hair to its original state.Corresponding devices such as original fermenter were also designed to put engineered yeast in real lifescenarios.
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HUST2-China
Title
NANO-AI-Cleaner

Abstract
As the eighth epidemic, acne plagues billions of people and is becoming one of the most common skin diseases. Abnormal proliferation of Propionibacterium acnes and corresponding immune responses are the main factors causing acne. To target both factors, we engineered probiotic E.coli Nissle 1917 to produce BLP-7 with elastin like peptide(ELP) and Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) antagonist with ELP under infrared induction, followed by in-situ assembly of sphere-like nanostructure NANO-AI-Cleaner through ELP-mediated hydrophobic interaction. ELP showed Intelligent temperature-controlled ability and significant skin-repairing effect while BLP-7 kills P. acnes by punching holes on the membrane surface and TLR2 antagonist blocks NF-kB pathway by competing for binding to acylated lipoproteins on the surface of P. acnes. In this way, our multi-functional nanostructure achieves antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and skin-repairing effects at the same time. We have successfully constructed NANO-AI-Cleaner, providing a convincing and promising treatment strategy for acne.
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UIUC Illinois
Title
apPETite: Engineering the PET degrading enzyme with improved thermostability and degradation rate

Abstract
Polyethylene terephthalate, or PET, is a plastic abundantly used in packaging and containers. Though PET is the most recycled plastic in the U.S., 3.1 million tons are produced annually and its current recycling rate is only 31%. Traditional remediation methods such as pelleting yield less products for every PET regeneration. Also, the microbial remediation with wild-type PET degrading enzymes (commonly called PETase) cannot be used under many current recycling conditions and has low degradation rates. To generate enzymes with higher degradation rates and thermostability, we developed machine learning algorithms to generate a number of candidate enzyme sequences. These candidate enzymes were then expressed and purified from E. coli BL21 and tested for the improved degradation of PET plastic using the NanoDrop method for validation. Project apPETite is an attempt to provide a framework for developing an enzyme with enhanced PET plastic degradation. 
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SJTU-BioX-Shanghai
Title
Detection Blitz

Abstract
We live in a world where monstrous industries operate ruthlessly, while the environment is crowded by numerous unknown hazardous bacteria and virus. Emergencies could occur without anyone foreseeing——by then, a lightning fast detection tool would play a vital role. SJTU-BioX-Shanghai think out of the box, constructing a platform that enables the automatic development of new fast detection test strips. With the help of an in vitro evolution strategy for aptazyme, we can effectively find biosensors for wide-ranging targets. Then two rational designed probes are introduced by our prediction model, which enables our nanogold based lateral flow system to show a positive signal with targets in existence. By virtue of the extremely short development cycle and equipment-free final products, our project possesses a bright prospect.
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TJUSLS China
Title
PETAres--- PETase with improved thermal stability

Abstract
Discarded PET in the environment has caused serious ecological and health problems at present. Enzymatic recycling of PET has been extensively investigated in the past 20 years. PETase is a novel PET-degrading enzyme with the ability to degrade the highly crystallized PET. However, the heat-labile property seriously hinders its industrial applications. To over this limitation, we firstly rationally designed several PETase mutants through our combine bioinformatics strategies. Then we cloned and expressed these mutant genes by using the E. coli system. We next purified all the expressed PETase mutants and tested their thermostability at several conditions. We found 7 of PETase mutants with increasing thermostability. Excitingly, the enzyme activity of one mutant was 163 times that of the wild-type PETase at 60°C that was 20°C higher than the optimum temperature of the wild-type PETase. Our project sheds light on the industrial application of PETase.
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iBowu-China
Title
Glycyrβ: synthesis of glycyrrhetinic acid

Abstract
Glycyrrhetinic Acid (GA) is an important herbal extract from the most widely used Chinese herbal medicine Licorice with applications both in the food and pharmaceutical industries. It is an approved effective medicine for peptic ulcers and has expectorant properties, and current research reported potential use for anti-viral, anti-bacterial, and in cancer treatments. The conventional extraction method using hydrolysis of glycyrrhizin (GL) suffers from high cost and high environmental pressure, which undermines its large-scale usage. Syn-bio pathways can potentially lower the cost, and are eco-friendly. Therefore, Team iBowu-China investigated synthetic methods using the enzyme beta-glucuronidase (bG) to hydrolyze GL into GA by experimenting with the coding sequence from different species. Our results indicate the enzyme can be stably produced with a good hydrolysis activity under proper conditions. 
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TAS Taipei
Title
UniversO: Enzymatic Blood Type Conversion to Eliminate Transfusion Incompatibility

Abstract
Blood transfusions are an integral component of healthcare, but the availability of blood is limited by patient-donor blood type specificity. This leads to blood shortages worldwide, especially in developing countries and during times of pandemics or natural disasters, including the COVID-19 pandemic. To alleviate the blood shortage issue, this project aims to increase the supply of universal donor blood through the enzymatic conversion of A, B, and AB blood types to O type, eliminating patient donor incompatibility. We have identified 3 glycoside hydrolases that act as molecular scissors to cleave off terminal residues on A and B RBC surface antigens, preventing cells from eliciting an immune response. We propose a modular, two step blood conversion kit housing our recombinant enzymes that can be implemented into blood banks and processing centers, increasing access to universal donor blood for all.
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Hong Kong UCCKE
Title
A Synthetic Biology Toolkit - Bacterial-based Detection with Coupled Cell Proliferation Control

Abstract
Biological detection systems are not often associated with cell proliferation. Here, we propose a novel bacterial-based detection toolkit where the detection of the target substance will restore normal cell proliferation in genetically modified E. Coli with knocked out growth-related genes. When using the toolkit, a recombinant plasmid is first transformed into a wildtype E. Coli to knockout two genes, using the CRISPR-Cas9 system, to reduce its growth. After the knockout, another plasmid containing a modular receptor platform (MRP), genes that restore growth rates, and a multiple cloning site (MCS), are transformed. The MRP with a customizable receptor domain can bind to its operon to activate downstream genes after binding its ligand. Genes used to restore growth and a choice of the user would be expressed. We envision the detection toolkit to have various uses, such as the amplification of signals and the detection of diseases.
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MichiganState
Title
A multi-tiered biocontainment strategy for the prevention of horizontal gene transfer in transgenic microbes

Abstract
To combat unwanted horizontal gene transfer in transgenic microbes, we are creating a multi-faceted biocontainment system designed to work in Escherichia coli. First, we use the GhoST toxin-antitoxin system to induce cell death in unintended recipients without the corresponding antitoxin. We are also designing a CRISPR-Cas9 based artificial immunity system to cleave conjugative plasmids that enter the host cell, preventing it from gaining conjugative machinery that would allow transfer of synthetic parts. In order to understand how our strategy would behave in a microbial community, we developed an assay to assess horizontal gene transfer from donor to recipient. We also use a Markov's model and an agent-based model (ABM) to imitate genetic transfer using biophysical and community-based methods, respectively. We hope this system could be used by future iGEM teams to enhance their biocontainment efforts and allow teams to move towards implementation in less controlled environments.
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Qdai
Title
Alternative to Canary

Abstract
Using genetic recombination technology, we will create E. coli bacteria that can detect toxic gases. The E. coli will be used in an environment where human life is at risk, and the luminescence of the E. coli will alert the user in advance of danger. In addition, we plan to make the E. coli die by itself after reacting for a while, assuming that the person handling the E. coli runs away at once in a dangerous situation. This is to prevent the worst-case scenario of accidentally releasing the synthetic organism into the environment. By using synthetic biology, we hope to create a multifunctional E. coli bacterium that can protect the safety of people in dangerous situations.
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MIT MAHE
Title
Cell-tinel

Abstract
Our project is a modular solution for safe research and experimentation for genetically engineered organisms for application in agriculture. Our model implements a process that targets a pest and a crop on a case by case basis, and identifies ways to limit the organism within the required parameters.Our proof of concept tests stem borers and rice crops as our target pest-crop pair. We plan to use a natural endophyte of rice, Bacillus subtilis, to introduce anti-stem borer properties along with other additional benefits for the crop. The system is such that the toxin for controlling the stem borers is only expressed within the stem borer, and the endophyte will only survive within the plant and stem borer environments.
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NWU-CHINA-A
Title
An adventure of ancient snails: Revive Tyrian purple by E.coli

Abstract
Tyrian purple is a natural dye that originally extracted from the secretion of sea snails in the ancient times, whose production cost thousands of snails and heavily relied on manpower. Nevertheless, there is not a method to prepare Tyrian purple in a large scale by now. Thus, we aim to realize the biosynthesis of 6,6-dibromoindigo, which is the main chemical constituent of Tyrian purple. The pathway begins from tryptophan and sodium bromide and end in 6,6-dibromoindigo, consisting of three successive reactions. To reduce the insolubility of the halogenase in the first reaction, we add a flavin reductase as a soluble tag on the N-terminal of the halogenase. Moreover, we get a tryptophanase knocked out strain by CRISPR/Cas9 to avoid the potential side reactions. Also we established a whole-cell reaction system to produce 6,6-dibromoindigo cheaply and efficiently. In addition, a dyeing protocol was developed to utilize our Tyrian purple products.
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USAFA
Title
DeFluorine Machine: Biodegradation of Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) utilizing Delftia acidovorans Enzymes

Abstract
Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) persist in the environment and are associated with liver and kidney disease, altered immune function, lower birth weight, and cancer. More than 4,000 PFAS chemicals have been manufactured for industrial use. PFAS discharge seeps into ground water and bioaccumulates, resulting in unsafe human exposure. Responding to this urgent need, the US Air Force Academy iGEM team identified the aerobic bacterial species Delftia acidovorans from PFAS-contaminated soil with the potential ability to breakdown PFAS. Genetic sequencing of D. acidovorans revealed coding for 5 dehalogenase enzymes (DeHa 1-5). The dehalogenases genes were cloned individually into E. coli expression vectors. Assays of these purified enzymes revealed monodefluorination activity for DeHa 2 and 4. DeHa 1 and DeHa 5 show promising preliminary data and may prove capable of degrading perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). With further research and enzyme optimization, our enzymes could offer a powerful, inexpensive prospect for PFAS biodegradation.  
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Rochester
Title
Bio-Spire: A novel diagnostic device for the continuous monitoring of biomarkers in sweat

Abstract
The 2021 University of Rochester Team Bio-Spire is manufacturing a wearable biosensor to diagnose sepsis using biomarkers found in sweat. Sepsis is a condition caused by an overwhelming immune response to infection. In the USA alone, at least 1.7 million adults develop sepsis yearly and nearly 270,000 die.We are storing DNA-encoding aptamers for sepsis-related biomarkers in Escherichia coli, synthesizing them in vitro, and developing a sleeve-like biosensor that incorporates these aptamers, graphene, electrodes, and microfluidics to monitor the changing levels of relevant biomarkers in patients. Mathematical modeling is used to predict the concentrations of these biomarkers in blood based on the sweat samples, and a corresponding software tool will display warnings of the patient's elevated sepsis risk. Our team is centering topics of safety, inclusivity, and ethics in our project, and we are doing outreach activities with a variety of local organizations to demonstrate basic scientific principles to children.
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Lambert GA
Title
AgroSENSE

Abstract
Hydroponics is a compact modular form of agriculture that addresses food insecurity by producing nutrient-dense, high-yield crops. However, maintaining small-scale systems introduces nutrient fluctuations thus declining plant health, impeding the implementation of hydroponics in urban communities. To combat these barriers and increase the frequency of hydroponics use, AgroSENSE provides an accurate and efficient method of nutrient monitoring and pathogen detection, while simultaneously addressing United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. We utilize our phosphate and nitrate biosensors and Fusarium and Phytophthora toehold switches in conjunction with our frugal plate reader for fluorescence quantification. To safely distribute our biosensors, we developed a frugal lyophilizer to freeze-dry cell-free lysates and bacterial samples. We collaborated with the Georgia Department of Agriculture on a regulatory proposal for agricultural biosensors to address biosecurity gaps and led community-centered synthetic biology educational outreach programs. AgroSENSE allows hydroponics users to proactively adjust system maintenance, ultimately increasing harvest yields and sustainability.
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MADRID UCM
Title
4C_Fuels: Cyanobacterial Cyclic Carbon Capture (for sustainable bioFuel production)

Abstract
We will use cyanobacteria as living catalysts for light-driven direct carbon dioxide conversion to valuable products, upgrading the conventional biomass-based biorefineries.To do so, we will engineer the newly discovered Synechococcus PCC11801. A robust fast-growing cyanobacteria for direct sun to chemicals production. Our goal is to test the potential of photosynthetical chemical manufacturing producing n-butanol; an ideal biofuel and comodity chemical.We are implementing an artificial n-butanol biosynthetic pathway, an synthetic pathway for enhanced carbon fixation towards acetyl-CoA as central metabollite and genetic modifications for enhanced solvent tolerance. In addition we will explore cyanobacterial encapsulation in nano-structured biohybrid materials, while performing an insight into the requirements for the industrial scale-up of photobiocatalytic technology.Likewise, we will develop tools for easing cyanobacteria genetic engineering. We will develop a software for neutral integration sites identification. Also a recombination-based system for the easy generation of unmarked mutants will be developed.
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Thessaloniki
Title
METIS: A toehold-based diagnostic tool for Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma

Abstract
Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the most common type of pancreatic cancer and it is characterized by its devastating outcome, with only a 10% 5-year survival rate. As in other cancer types, it is considered that the earlier diagnosis could contribute to a more efficient treatment. However, the currently available diagnostic methods are unable to detect the tumor at an early stage. Thus, we are designing a toehold-based system to detect specific molecules, called miRNAs, that play an important role in the regulation of gene expression and cell cycle and are upregulated in the urine of patients in the first two stages of PDAC. We hope that this tool can be used by local diagnostic centers to provide a cost-effective, non-invasive and easily accessible diagnostic method. To further improve the impact of our method, we are, also, designing a device where the necessary reactions will take place.
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Mingdao
Title
deSALMONEtor – a phage-based Salmonella detector

Abstract
Designer phage is a synthetic programmable bacteriophage utilized in diagnosis, vaccine, drug delivery in medicine. Salmonella spp. are a leading cause of food poisoning. Phage typing is a traditional method for characterizing distinct bacterial strains through specific recognition. Phage reporters have been genetically equipped with GFP or luciferase gene and applied in detecting Salmonella in contaminated food. However, the limitation and challenges still hinder its application to routine sample examination. In our project, we have created a Salmonella detector by introducing phi29 DNA polymerase gene into an isolated Salmonella phage genome through in vitro Tol2 transposon system. Rolling circle amplification (RCA) will be triggered in the presence of phi29 DNA polymerase generated by the reporter phage-infected Salmonella cells. The RCA products can be easily measured with a DNA-binding dye. Implementation in mathematical modeling and hardware design will help to understand the potential use in the real world.
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KCIS NewTaipei
Title
D-licious: Engineering Butyrate-producing Bacteria to Combat Vitamin D Deficiency

Abstract
From regulating calcium homeostasis, strengthening the immune system, and even preventing COVID-19 infection, vitamin D serves a crucial role in the maintenance of human health. Vitamin D deficiency, a global pandemic caused largely by the lack of sunlight exposure, has only exacerbated during COVID-19 lockdown. However, all current solutions to vitamin D deficiency present limitations in efficiency or accessibility. Our project presents a new method for vitamin D activation. By manipulating the acetyl-CoA butyrate producing pathway, we can increase the butyrate-producing ability of probiotics. The increased production of butyrate would upregulate Vitamin D receptor expression by increasing the activity of the TGFβ pathway, which would ultimately result in a more efficient activation of vitamin D. By introducing our engineered probiotics into fermented food starters, we believe the project could be implemented in daily diets, opening up opportunities for a more efficient way of vitamin D intake in the future.
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ZJU-China
Title
Liver Guard: Precise therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma based on engineered oncolytic adenovirus

Abstract
Oncolytic virus (OV) is a promising method to treat hepatocellular carcinoma, yet it has not been widely used clinically due to low infection efficiency, insufficient specificity, compromised intertumoral transmission and etc. Our project designed a genetically modified adenovirus using synthetic biology approach to overcome current problems with oncolytic virus. We also enables engineered adenovirus to escape from immunity trap with immunocamouflage, which increases the titre of viral infection. We hoped that our project can give a new insight into precise oncolytic treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.
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Nanjing-China
Title
Polyp Neo

Abstract
 IBD(inflammatory bowel disease) are two serious, chronic digestive diseases that affect five million people worldwide. By means of Synthetic Biology, we hope to biosynthesize long-chain polyphosphate, which is biocompatible and promising to cure IBD. The aim of our project is to develop a new application of long-chain polyphosphate, including not only biosynthesizing it with high yield and under the concept of sustainable development, but also exploring its potential to be developed as a new IBD therapy.  
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FAFU-CHINA
Title
"Mystery of Fragrance":Photoperiod Microbial Fragrance Production System

Abstract
This year, our team developed a system of aroma production by light-regulated microorganisms, which gives microorganisms the ability to produce aroma by regulating endogenous pathways and cutting into different exogenous enzymes, and through mathematical modeling, determine its optimal culture conditions so that it stably exists in the developed system. By adding light-controlled switch elements to microorganisms, the concentration of the aroma can be changed according to the intensity of light. The inhibition of linalool synthase in Escherichia coli is relieved under light, and linalool can be produced. Saccharomyces cerevisiae can produce nerol in dark conditions, and the related proteins are eventually degraded under the light. Finally, we designed an ingenious hardware device for the whole system, which effectively solved the problem of microbial leakage and aroma diffusion. Looking to the future, our team hopes to apply the system to the development of new nightlights and into people's lives.
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HZAU-China
Title
P.E.T: Pets' Enteric Test

Abstract
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), whose victim almost covers all mammalian species, is an immune-mediated disease at the intersection of complex interactions among genetics, environment and gut microbiota. Compared with human-beings, pets are not able to voice their current health conditions directly; thus, delayed diagnosis becomes a common phenomenon. Taking the most common pets- dogs as objects, HZAU-China aims to develop a method based on synthetic biology to detect IBD at an early stage. The modified Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 can sense the concentration change of biomarkers. If pets suffer from IBD, the bacteria will amplify the unperceivable pathological change by producing substance with special smell and release therapeutic protein. Whatever pets' health conditions are, the modified bacteria will release health-care unit, exerting profound positive effects on pets' health. In the future, our project will be further ameliorated so as to apply this detective method to a wider range of mammals.
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CSU CHINA
Title
Sweet Guard

Abstract
Our project aims to find a new method of treating type 1 diabetes with the help of synthetic biology. Our engineered cells will be implanted subcutaneously by mature embedding technology.When the cells meet two conditions , hyperglycemia and shinning blue light, they are able to secrete insulin and make the levels ofblood sugar become lower until it gets back to normal level. However, when the level of insulin is high,Insulin molecule will be combined with insulin receptor and the signal would be activated by it. Then, miRNA will be expressed and inhibit the expression of insulin. Meanwhile, because of Tet-off system, we can use tetracycline to force the loop to stop, in order to improve the safety of our design.
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NAU-CHINA
Title
High-efficiency selenium recovery bioreactor : E. coli

Abstract
Selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) are a kind of elemental selenium wrapped in biological macromolecules such as proteins. Some microorganisms have the nutural ability to reduce selenium-oxide anions to SeNPs. However, they are not always perfect. There are problems such as low reduction efficiency and low activity due to large particle size of SeNPs. We chose E.coli BL21, which has the natural ability of reducing selenium oxide anions to SeNPs, as the chassis, added ssuE enzyme and Sef A protein which could improve the reduction rate. Finally, a high-efficient selenium recovery bioreactor with higher reduction rate and higher product activity was obtained. The SeNPs produced in the bioreactor has been used to inhibit drug-resistant bacteria, adsorb heavy metal ions and improve the quality of crops with satisfactory results.
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NCTU Formosa
Title
Denteeth - A New Type of Dental Bone

Abstract
  Periodontal disease is an infection of the tissues that hold your teeth in place. Severe periodontal disease was proved to be related to many chronic and cardiovascular diseases. With almost 10% of the global population affected with periodontal disease, the problem of oral disease has been one of the top problems that pose a threat to human beings and even dogs. As many experimenting thoughts are first conducted on dogs, we think it's expedient to focus on dogs' oral health first before applying to human beings. We ameliorate and create a new type of dental bone, DenTeeth.In DenTeeth, antimicrobial peptides are used to sterilize. And we also found several proteins which can repair damaged gingiva and tooth tissue. By optimizing our design through this procedure, we can adjust our project to the optimal place. 
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Alma
Title
Poisoned River

Abstract
The Pine River is found in central Michigan, near Alma College's campus. Following the closure of the Velsicol Chemical Plant in 1978, many environmental pollutants -- including DDT and its derivatives -- were improperly disposed of and leached into the surroundings, thus coining the name, the Poisoned River. These organochlorides are endocrine disruptors and possible carcinogens have wreaked havoc on the local ecosystem. More than this population were affected. Our solution: a biosensor that uses estrogen receptors to detect these harmful pollutants. Several species of animals have estrogen receptors known to bind DDT, a known xenoestrogen. Linking this to a reporting gene, such as RFP, within a microbe will allow the detection of organochlorides. This can lead to the screening of contaminated areas locally and globally. Ultimately, this biosensor has the potential to save thousands of dollars in not only our superfund sites, but pollution cleanup effort across the globe. 
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XMU-China
Title
SALVAGE

Abstract
Nuclear power is an important source in electricity production. The plants need to be built on coast for the huge requirement of cooling water. However, marine organisms such as Phaeocystis globosa and Mytilus eduli sometimes cause blockage, making the cooling water system less efficient. Here, we show our solutions that the Lectin-SpyTag/SpyCatcher can pull down P. globosa colonies and then the hutH-fused proteins suppress the activity of P. globosa. To inhibit M. eduli fouling, Vibrio natriegens are engineered to express LC1KR2, PPO, and TnaA, which function jointly to attach engineered bacteria to the coarse grille and to inhibit M. eduli attachment. Genes rhlA and rhlB are also introduced to remove protection from mussel foot protein(mfp). As for biosafety, a blue-light-activated device, pBlind system, is implemented to control the expression of toxic protein BlrA, which can constrain the engineered bacteria in a reservoir with two blue light strips upstream and downstream.
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SZPT-CHINA
Title
Kissed by Light

Abstract
Infection remains the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in burn patients. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is among the leading causes of nosocomial infection primarily because it is intrinsically resistant to many antibiotics and antimicrobials.This year our team is working on P.aeruginosa infection and wound repair in burn treatment. Using principles of synthetic biology, we genetically modified Gluconacetobacter hansenii ATCC 53582 to kill P. aeruginosa specifically through the production and release of chimeric bacteriocin SE protein and the immunity protein. Moreover, the production of cellulose in the engineered Gluconacetobacter hansenii ATCC 53582 was regulated by light, which can further prevent infection of other bacteria and promote wound repair.
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SJTU-Software
Title
An intelligent platform for DNA nano machine contriving

Abstract
Dry Lab can provide pre-experiment reference and guidance for wet experiments, thereby greatly improving the efficiency of the wet laboratory. Our project served wet lab in two different directions via multi tools. Firstly, conducting an in silico analysis of miscellaneous medical data, we can determine the dominant biomarkers (miRNA, mRNA, etc.) for subsequent wet experiment, thus reducing workload. Next, for the purposes of our Nano DNA machines our team have built a deep learning model to assist probe design. With the combined utilization of our tools, wet lab's productivity will be improved significantly.
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BUCT-China
Title
The Future Food ——Cultured Meat

Abstract
Mankind has never stopped exploring the universe. With the development of science and technology, space migration is no longer a dream. Among the many problems of space migration, our team has great interest in space food. We tried to provide feasible solutions based on synthetic biology and tissue engineering technology. In our design, firstly, an engineered E. coli was employed and started with glucose as raw material to synthesize a bio-compatible polymer, which would work as scaffold for muscle cell growth. Afterwards, collagen was produced by another engineered E. coli and doped with scaffold materials. Then the scaffold was prepared by biological 3D printing technology. Finally, the extracted muscle stem cells were inoculated on the scaffold for culture, differentiation, and proliferation to form the final cultured meat. Besides, a mathematical model is established to simulate the growth of artificial meat, which would provide foundation and guidance for the future research.
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AFCM-Egypt
Title
Deep Learning-Assisted Immunotherapy Platform for Triple-Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC)

Abstract
Immunotherapy provides new therapeutic opportunities for various cancers and infectious diseases. Herein, triple-negative breast cancer immunotherapy is achieved via circuits developed to operate logical decisions upon recognizing intracellular targets. Using DNA launching of replicons as a potent delivery system, the platform regulates the expression of the subgenomic immunotherapeutic message based on sensing intracellular mRNAs or proteins via novel protein fusion constructs. This regulation depends on a set of riboswitches to control downstream expression. To provide a safety switch for clinical applications, the system can be stopped through a small molecule inhibition. This design is also environment-responsive, as it depends on a set of toehold-like switches to sense cell-specific set of RNAs leading to feedback regulation of the delivered cargo. The platform was adapted to deliver intratumoral oncolytic and immunotherapeutic signals. It is aided by a set of deep learning models and a computational directed evolution algorithm for developing functional proteins.
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IISER Mohali
Title
Estimating the risk of developing OSCC (Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma) by quantifying salivary biomarker levels

Abstract
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most prevalent form of oral cancer. Since medical infrastructure is unaffordable to most of our society, an urgent and effective diagnostic tool is needed at present. Our kit, OSCCit aims at detecting the levels of salivary protease biomarkers that are elevated among OSCC patients. It then assesses the risk one has of developing OSCC and might suggest the user to visit a doctor.OSCCit contains an engineered bacterial cage protein - Encapsulin that has fluorophores internally and a substrate sequence externally. When protease biomarkers cleave the latter, fluorescence occurs. This characteristic emission frequency allows us to verify the presence of the protease and estimate its concentration through the emission intensity. Protease biomarkers maintain their activity, giving us the advantage of working directly with a patient's saliva without any processing. Additionally, 3D printed hardware parts ensure the kit can be used with a smartphone.
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BNDS China
Title
Modified Metabolic Pathway for Rhamnolipids Synthesis using Directed Evolution and Protein Scaffold

Abstract
Rhamnolipid, a widely used biosurfactant, is produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, but the overall production cannot fulfill the demand of industrial use. BNDS China 2021 aims to increase rhamnolipids production using directed evolution and protein scaffold. For the convenience of genetic engineering, rhlA, B, and C which are endogenous enzymes in P.a. are transformed into E. coli. With the EvolvR directed evolution system, random mutations can be added to the gene and variants with higher activity can be screened with a rhamnose induced promoter fused with antibiotic resistance genes and the rhamnolipidases that can hydrolyze rhamnolipid into rhamnose. Protein scaffold, which can fuse the separate enzymes into a complex, is also included in our design in order to reduce the shunt product and increase the yield. Two Mathematical models are designed to quantyitatively validate our biosensor for EvolvR system,and to increase the activity of the enzyme by point mutation. 
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Hong Kong JSS
Title
AflaCut: A Innovative Apporach to Tackle Aflatoxin Contamination in Food

Abstract
Aflatoxins are carcinogens produced by Aspergillus sp. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is the most common and toxic member among all.According to WHO, ~25% of foods crops are contaminated by AFB annually. Meanwhile, ~5 billion people are at risk of AFB exposure and 80% of them develop AFB-related cancer.The Consumer Council of Hong Kong in 2020 shows that 24% of popular dried spices in HK contain AFB. Meanwhile, the humid weather in HK favors the growth of the fungi, so AFB contamination of improperly stored food is a common problem.Our project aims to synthesize a probiotic E. coli that secretes high activity AFB-degrading enzymes. The applications include:1. Applying to the surface of crops. While the enzymes detoxify the AFB, E. coli reduces the fungal growth by competition. 2. Purified enzymes will be used as detoxifying spray. This project is in the Phase I stage.
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Wageningen UR
Title
Cattlelyst - Reducing the ecological hoofprint of cattle

Abstract
Our planet suffers from a large excess of reactive nitrogen, impacting local and global ecosystems. In the Netherlands, almost 50% of total nitrogen emissions originate from the cattle industry, mainly in the form of ammonia. Additionally, cattle naturally emit the potent greenhouse gas methane, contributing to global warming. Experts informed us that currently, no combined solution exists to both threats. Therefore we have developed Cattlelyst, a biofilter for cattle stalls targeting ammonia and methane emissions. Cattlelyst relies upon a synthetic co-culture of two non-pathogenic bacterial species that remove these harmful gasses. We modelled and established ammonia conversion in Pseudomonas putida alongside engineering Escherichia coli to consume methane. Containment of the bacteria in the biofilter is ensured by a combination of auxotrophy and two safety circuits. Thanks to these features, Cattlelyst provides a biological, animal-friendly and biosafe solution to reduce the ecological hoofprint of the livestock sector.
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Groningen
Title
Bye-Monia, tackling Dutch nitrogen crisis: Reduction of Nitrogen emissions by alpha-amylase production in Saccharomyces spp.

Abstract
The Netherlands is producing excess nitrogen, which is harmful to nature and biodiversity. One of the main culprits for this so-called nitrogen crisis is animal agriculture, a vital income source for the Dutch economy. Our project targets ammonia emissions contributing to the crisis and aims to convert them into a beneficial feed additive. Thus, we have engineered Saccharomyces spp. to synthesize alpha-amylase, an enzyme that optimizes cattles' digestion. This way, their milk production and growth will be enhanced while ammonia emissions will be reduced simultaneously. Residual ammonia will be captured by a state-of-the-art filter device, a Metal-Organic Framework (MOF), and fed back to our GMO. Furthermore, insights from artificial intelligence will be employed to optimize the engineering process. Overall, we have designed a closed sustainable circle in which waste - excess ammonia, is converted into worth - a feed additive for cattle. 
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UNSW Australia
Title
PROTECC Coral (Prevent Reactive Oxygen and Thermal Extreme Caused Carking)

Abstract
The Great Barrier Reef is the world's largest coral system, integral to Indigenous Australian culture and classified as a World Heritage Site. Rising ocean temperatures have caused several large coral bleaching events, which are attributed to a shift in the symbiotic relationship between coral and microscopic algae species. Heat-induced oxidative stress experienced by algae eventually leads to their expulsion from coral.PROTECC Coral, a Phase II project, aims to reduce coral bleaching by increasing the thermotolerance and antioxidant capacity of a common algal symbiont Symbiodinium goreaui. The twofold solution involves introducing small heat shock proteins to prevent protein aggregation, and a glutathione recycling enzyme system to counteract oxidative stress. Experiments and computational modelling were conducted to examine and validate the solution, complemented by considerable outreach, both informing the wider population about synthetic biology and consulting with various stakeholders, including Traditional Owners, to assess the value and impact of the project.
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Warwick
Title
A fast detection method for carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) using CRISPR riboswitches

Abstract
Enterobacteriaceae are a highly widespread family of bacteria, some of which are pathogenic. They are traditionally treated with antibiotics, but the antibiotic resistance crisis threatens to remove this option. Some Enterobacteriaceae have developed resistance to carbapenems, a "last-resort" antibiotic for multi-drug resistant bacteria. Hence, containment is one of the most effective countermeasures against infections with carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE). However, current methods of testing for CPE are slow and can take up to 4 days for a negative result. Hospitals appear to be a reservoir for CPE – particularly drains, sinks and faucets. To aid in containing the spread of CPE, we propose a novel detection method using a gRNA modified into a riboswitch, sensitive to the presence of a carbapenemase mRNA, coupled with a CRISPR activation system to produce a fluorescent green RNA aptamer. The resulting fluorescence can be viewed under UV light, making carbapenem resistant bacteria easy to identify.
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NJTech China
Title
Saving Rose Plan—Design and Construction of Synthetic Yeast-Microalgae Consortia for Biosynthesis of Phenylethanol

Abstract
Phenylethanol has been widely used in cosmetics and other fields owing to its rose aroma. This project chooses Saccharomyces cerevisiae as the chassis microorganism, optimizes the phenethylamine pathway of different sources and expression modes, improves the activity of phenylacetaldehyde synthase through promoter engineering, establishes a yeast-microalgae microbial consortia system based on nutritional complementation and metabolites exchange. The combination with 3D printing microcapsule embedding technology will eventually guide to establish a robust, stable, and controllable artificial microbial consortia system for the green and efficiency phenylethanol biosynthetic.
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ShanghaiTech China
Title
Mussel Inspired Biocompatible Osteogenic Material(MIBOM)

Abstract
This year, we decided to challenge the comminuted fractures and develop a new strategy for bone repair. We get inspiration from mussels, a creature that can adhere tightly to reefs through mussel protein in aqueous environment, and we designed a new biocompatible osteogenic glue. We designed adhesion, hydrogel, regulation and drug systems to make it a qualified osteogenic material. The adhesion system is based on mussel protein, which provides the adhesive ability in aqueous environment. The hydrogel system is designed to provide structural strength and UV-induced mechanism makes it friendly to clinicians. The regulation system is based on cells, we construct a Piezo1-based pathway to make cells sense the stress during the bone growth and secret enzymes to degrade the hydrogel, and then drugs mixed in the gel are released. We name it MIBOM, Mussel Inspired Biocompatible Osteogenic Material. 
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NJU-China
Title
Targeted therapy of asthma by self-assembled small interfering RNA in vivo

Abstract
Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease estimated to affect more than 339 million people worldwide. People suffering from asthma can only use different levels of ICS or ICS-LABA to prevent exacerbations and control symptoms. We focus on type 2 inflammation in bronchus, which is common but a key contributor to asthma. Our scheme is to take advantage of RNAi therapy to target TSLP and GATA3 to degrade their expression of mRNA and consequently improve asthma situations. During this process, we use a self-assembled siRNA delivery system where we enclose the siRNAs with exosomes to inhibit the above genes' translation and to subsequently prevent downstream toxicity and immunogenicity, which is superior to the otherwise exogenously pre-assembled systems. Meanwhile, we connected with our community through human practices to raise awareness of asthma. To ensure our sustainable impact, we held a regional meetup and founded an organization called the Nanjing iGEM Association (NIA).
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Tuebingen
Title
ATHELAS: A modular screening platform for stabilized antimicrobial peptides expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana

Abstract
Antimicrobial resistance is one of the ten most severe global health threats to humanity, according to the WHO. Pathogenic bacteria are constantly acquiring resistance to further antibiotics, leading to the emergence of multi-drug-resistant and therefore untreatable strains with the drugs available. A class of new potential antibacterial drugs are antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which are part of the innate immune response of eukaryotes and prokaryotes. However, the medical applicability of unmodified AMPs is limited by their low in vivo stability. Therefore, we invented ATHELAS: an AMP-thioknot herbal expression and low effort activity screening platform. In our project, we use highly stable cyclic peptides from plants called cyclotides as a scaffold to stabilize AMPs. We developed a convenient platform to screen the properties of arbitrary stabilized peptides. Our platform includes an array of fast cloning, transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana, efficient extraction and purification, and antibacterial activity testing.
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Marburg
Title
OpenPlast - Establishing cell-free systems from chloroplasts as rapid prototyping platforms for plant SynBio

Abstract
Climate change is threatening many of the crops we rely on. To ensure stable food supply, engineered crops will play a major role in our future agriculture, but crop development currently takes about a decade. In our project OpenPlast, we develop cell free systems (CFS) from chloroplasts of different plants, including various crops. Showing that they can be employed as prototyping platforms to characterize genetic constructs, these systems drastically reduce testing times.We use a machine learning guided approach to optimize reaction mixture composition and create a collection of GoldenGate based chloroplast parts to be characterized in our CFS. This toolbox includes regulatory elements for chloroplasts of plants so far heavily underrepresented in the registry.After successful chloroplast transformation, we want to show that data generated in our systems is comparable to in vivo data, proving that our systems can efficiently be used as prototyping platforms for plant SynBio.
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BJEA China
Title
Beneco

Abstract
Plastics are widely used in the world because of its durability. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is one of the most commonly used plastics. Generally, there are 3 methods for PET recycling including physical, chemical, and biological recycling. However, physical and chemical recycling both have limitations,such as the inability to achieve closed-loop recycling and cause secondary pollution. Therefore, biological recycling seems to be a sustainable development approach. Research published on Nature found a mutant LCC (mLCC) which is the most efficient enzyme that can degrade PET. Base on the facts, our group decides to enhance the activity of mLCC by proceeding two approaches, The first is constructing a fusion protein of mLCC and hydrophobins to enhance PET adsorption. The second is using the technique of Bacillus subtilis cell surface display to construct a whole-cell biocatalyst which can improve the stability of enzymes and reduce costs.
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LZU-CHINA
Title
Development of CRISPR-Cas13d as a SARS-CoV-2 antiviral Strategy by targeting ACE2

Abstract
Currently, the world is still faced with the COVID-19 pandemic caused by novel coronavirus(SARS-CoV-2) which urgently requires flexible and targeted protection measures. The spike protein on its surface binds to receptors called ACE2 and then enters the cell through endocytosis. Inhibiting the expression level of ACE2 is considered to be an effective treatment for COVID-19. CRISPR-Cas13d is an RNA-guided ribonuclease that targets ssRNA. The design of gRNA does not need to consider specific adjacent motif. We select human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293T) to establish ACE2 stable transfection lines and lentivirus with novel coronavirus spike protein is used as pseudovirus. Through bioinformatics screening of crRNA pool for ACE2 conserved sequence, the lentivirus /CRISPR-Cas13d system was constructed. The system is designed to knock down the mRNA of ACE2 in cells, which leads to a decrease of ACE2 on cell surface. Thus, entry of the pseudovirus into cells is inhibited. 
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NTNU-Trondheim
Title
SulFind: A biosensor for sensitive hydrogen sulfide measurements in recirculating aquaculture systems

Abstract
With SulFind, we are addressing acute fish death caused by hydrogen sulfide (H2S) poisoning in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). Our goal is to design a biosensor that would satisfy industry standards as present technologies for H2S detection are often insufficiently sensitive for toxic H2S levels. Two biosensor systems were attempted, a whole-cell system and a system based on heme proteins. Our heme-based sensor exploits the protein's sulfide-binding capabilities. We use fluorescence intensity to evaluate the conformational change in fluorophore-tagged myoglobin protein bound to H2S. The sensing device will be embedded in a microfluidic chip, which will be compatible with existing methods for monitoring water quality in RAS facilities. As a result, our study seeks to reduce acute fish mortality in RAS facilities, making RAS more sustainable and economical.
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WHU-China
Title
Acneraser

Abstract
Acne, a common skin disease generally related to pores being blocked by sebum and Propionibacterium acnes proliferating in such an anaerobic environment, almost bothers everyone but has no particularly effective treatment. To address this long-standing challenge, our project aims to develop a novel acne therapy. We engineered a safe, nutritionally deficient Escherichia coli strain, which could decompose fatty acids in high efficiency and secrete strain-specific bacteriocin, for ameliorating sebum blocking and inhibiting P.acnes growth, respectively. In addition, a fatty acids-sensing system was constructed to enable precise therapeutics actuation only in appropriate conditions, minimizing the side effects of gene leakage expression. Furthermore, a high-throughput microfluidic chip was manufactured for accelerating the experimental cycle of directed evolution to optimize the fatty acids-sensing system. It is anticipated that the Acneraser will build new bridges between acne research and synthetic biology, letting this promising and exciting scientific field enhance everyone's life. 
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Bulgaria
Title
2021 A Resistance Odyssey

Abstract
Our team focused on the application of protocols, combining identification of already known and discovery of new genetic determinants, for antibiotic resistance in waste waters.In Phase 1, we gathered information for known antibiotic resistance genes by running full metagenomic sequencing, as well as through selective amplification and sequencing of integrons. This allowed early detection of antibiotic resistance factors relevant to clinically significant antibiotics. Then we singled out genes related to antibiotic resistance, which haven't been found in the territory of Bulgaria yet. Upon the discovery of new determinants, our project entered Phase 2, in which the determinants were generated using synthesis and gene cloning. The successful completion of our project would lead to the development of streamlined protocols for the examination of the cumulative resistome. This allows for an adequate estimation of antibiotic resistance and provide us with information for future emergence and treatment of multi-resistant bacteria. 
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IISc-Bangalore
Title
CellOPHane

Abstract
Project CellOPHane seeks to create a functionalized bacterial cellulose filter to combat organophosphate pollution. Organophosphates are used as pesticides globally but are extremely potent neurotoxic agents, which cause adverse reactions on reaching living organisms through contaminated agricultural runoff. We are seeking to degrade the organophosphates present in water into relatively harmless products by using a broad-spectrum organophosphate hydrolase functionalized on a bacterial cellulose sheet. We're also seeking to create a one-of-a-kind modular plug-n-play platform to combat other kinds of pollution with minimal modifications. The platform that we seek to create can be used for any bioremediation strategy by just cloning the corresponding enzyme; one need not therefore spend resources on reimagining the exact design implementation for every individual contaminant. Project CellOPHane will thus help in reshaping the bioremediation landscape and make bioremediation strategies easy to develop and implement.
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Evry Paris-Saclay
Title
Evolution.T7

Abstract
Every life form has emerged through evolution. Successive random mutations followed by selection of the fittest individuals has resulted in vastly complex and diverse living organisms. This process can be accelerated in the laboratory to create new protein variants with desirable properties by diversification of a known DNA sequence followed by selective amplification, an approach known as directed evolution. In vivo diversification with locus-specific targeting has recently become possible using T7-RNAP-guided deaminases. Here, aiming to maximize the effectiveness of this method, we have combined two strategies. First, we use new cytosine and adenosine deaminases with improved mutagenesis rates. Second, our innovative design can target both DNA strands simultaneously, resulting in improved diversification and reducing the bias observed in existing systems that mainly target only one of the strands of DNA in each mutation cycle. Finally, we validate the performance of our system by evolving enzymes, fluorescent proteins and transcription factors.
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Concordia-Montreal
Title
Astroyeast Microfarm: Space-adapted nutrient and flavour factory

Abstract
The AstroYeast Microfarm project comprises two major parts. These include AstroYeast, which is a strain of microgravity tolerant S. cerevisiae and a bioreactor that mitigates the effect of microgravity on liquid cultures. The overall goal of this project is to provide a platform for bioproduction using baker's yeast that can be used on long space missions. To develop the yeast, a fluorescent reporter whose expression mimics microgravity induced stress responses, and will be used as a marker for tracking evolution progress. The promoters selected are based on results from the AstroBio database, our team's project from last year. Microgravity stress was induced using microgravity simulators in the form of a high aspect rotating vessel and a 3D clinostat designed and built by our team and collaborators. The bioreactor will be designed to be automated, sustainable, and accessible to the operator in order to satisfy our objective.
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FZU-China
Title
Development of optogenetic switch-based gut bacteria to potentially alleviate depression by supplying GABA

Abstract
Depression is a common but serious mood disorder. Although there are treatments for depression, the possible adverse effects associated with antidepressant medication and the decline of treatments from patients can be problematic. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), as an important inhibitory neurotransmitter, has been shown to play a significant role in the regulation of mood disorders. Studies show that in healthy individuals, GABA-producing pathways are actively expressed in human gut microbiota. Based on these findings, we aim to engineer a dynamically controlled gut bacteria which can synthesize GABA to alleviate depression. We engineer a strain of E. coli to contain an optogenetic switch. When the switch is on, GadB (enzyme) and φX174E (lysis protein) can be made. GadB can catalyze the conversion of glutamate (which is abundant in foods) into GABA inside the cell. After the GABA concentration reaches a threshold, φX174E can lyse the cell and release GABA into the environment.
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NCKU Tainan
Title
MenTAUR - Your Life's Mentor.

Abstract
Mental health disorders, especially chronic stress-induced depression (CSID), have heavily impacted the lives of many. During the COVID-19 pandemic, humanity has been under more irregularity, and currently, 25% of the global population is highly stressed out.To alleviate mental dysregulations caused by aggregating stress, iGEM NCKU_Tainan invented “MenTAUR”, a revolutionary solution to CSID. MenTAUR consists of two components: Menbles and f(int). Menbles are edible Taiwanese bubbles containing E. coli Nissle 1917 that can autoregulate the production of taurine, a well-known neuroprotective agent, in the intestine by sensing the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), which are of higher levels in stressed-induced depressive patients. f(int) is a microfluidic chip that simulates the intestinal environment where the auto-production of taurine occurs, allowing us to model the metabolism of Menbles. iGEM NCKU_Tainan believes that MenTAUR, as your life's mentor, serves as guidance on your journey to a stress-free world.
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SCUT-China
Title
Nootka-Boom!

Abstract
In the humid south, mosquito repellent has been the concern of Guangzhou people. Mosquitoes are not only annoying but also spread various diseases. Therefore, in tropical and subtropical areas, mosquito repellant products are in great demand. Nootkatone is a new mosquito repellent ingredient reported by EPA with more safety and higher stability, but excessively high cost has caused manufacturing limitations. SCUT-China aims at turning S. cerevisiae into a cell factory for Nootkatone production and improving efficiency by promoter engineering modification. Based on the fermentation characteristics of S. cerevisiae, we combined the upstream regulatory elements of different promoters according to the carbon source response mechanism of promoters, and obtained hybrid-promoter supporting high expression in both early and late fermentation. Further, we increased the transcriptional strength of hybrid-promoters by nucleosome affinity model. It is hoped that this project could help achieve higher market shares of Nootkatone and benefit more people.
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William and Mary
Title
Orthogonality

Abstract
Orthogonality, defined as the lack of unwanted interactions among parts of a circuit or between a circuit and host physiology, is a fundamental tenet of synthetic biology. While methodology for identifying undesirable interactions among circuit parts themselves is well studied, assessment of orthogonality between the circuit and the host physiology that goes beyond metabolic burden has received surprisingly little attention, with the few existing methods both costly and technically challenging. To address this universal need, W&M iGEM is developing an accessible toolkit for circuit-host orthogonality assessment in E. coli. This toolkit employs circuits that provide measurements not only of classic burden, but also more encompassing orthogonality markers identified by extensive analysis of RNA-Seq data. These measurements serve as inputs for our integrative, comprehensive mathematical model that provides the end user with overall orthogonality metrics, with the goal of enhancing the efficiency, functionality, and safety of all synthetic biology circuits.
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Aachen
Title
Enzyme-based semi-specific DNA synthesis for long-term data storage

Abstract
In the last few years, DNA sequencing has developed rapidly while DNA synthesis still relies on the decades-old chemical phosphoramidite system. However, this process is toxic and has already reached its limit at around 200 bases. Thus, the demand for more environmentally friendly and effective novel approaches is evident. In this project, we report an enzymatic ssDNA synthesis system with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT). In each synthesis cycle, an unspecific number of nucleotides is incorporated. Our unique automated hardware can selectively attach nucleotides to immobilized primers in order to synthesize preset DNA sequences. We present a ternary system to encode and recover the information stored on DNA. This system enables the semi-specific approach, in which information is saved only in the transitions between bases, therefore specific synthesis is not necessary. This opens up a much more approachable and robust system that even allows adding proof-reading properties.
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SDSU
Title
Engineering Methanococcus maripaludis for Methanol Biosynthesis, Wastewater Treatment, and Desalination in a Bioelectrochemical System

Abstract
Globally, close to 80% of wastewater receives no treatment and it is anticipated that 40% of people will lack access to clean water for drinking or irrigation by 2030. Additionally, given the effects of climate change on the planet, sustainable, carbon neutral fuels are essential to mitigate anthropogenic damage to the planet. SDSU's iGEM team addressed these issues using a three chamber Bioelectrochemical System(BES) inoculated with Shewanella oneidensis in the anode chamber and Methanococcus maripaludis in the cathode. The third chamber is used for water deionization by taking advantage of the BES cell voltage and permeable membranes. Although the BES desalinates, treats organics in wastewater, and creates a biofuel(CH4) from CO2 using the wild type organisms, reactive oxygen species(ROS) genes, protein folding chaperones, and a methane monooxygenase(MMO) were constructed to allow M. maripaludis to synthesize methanol from methane within the BES. 
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HK SSC
Title
Biosynthesis of Valerolactam by Synechococcus elongatus UTEX 2973​

Abstract
Lactams are family of cyclic amides widely used in the synthesis materials including nylon and piperidines used in drugs. Traditionally, lactams are synthesized through energy-intensive petrochemical methods. Here, we describe a method using Synechococcus elongatus UTEX 2973 as a chassis for the production of δ-valerolactam. A feedback insensitive aspartate kinase (AK) is used to achieve overproduction of lysine. Lysine is then oxidized to δ-amino-valeramide by L-Lysine monooxygenase (DavB), which is further hydrolyzed to δ-aminovalerate (5-AVA) by 5-aminovaleramide amidohydrolase (DavA). The resulting 5-AVA is cyclized to form δ-valerolactam. A shuttle vector with the feedback insensitive AK, davB and davA is integrated to S.elongatus UTEX 2973 through the INTEGRATE system, a previously described CRISPR-transposon system. Since reported cyclases for the cyclization of 5-AVA to δ-valerolactam are not efficient, an efficient cyclase is also designed using computational analysis.
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OUC-China
Title
ALLPASs(Amplifying Low-leakage Platform for Antibiotic Sensors)

Abstract
 Due to the large-scale abuse of antibiotics, the environmental pollution and food residues caused by antibiotics have posed a great threat to the ecological environment and human health. Therefore, this project aims to design a series of whole cell biosensors (WCBs) to detect three kinds of common antibiotics.. To break through the common limitations of WCBs, a fluorescent RNA aptamer is used as the output signal to increase the response speed, and it is hoped that the signal-noise ratio and dynamic range of the sensor can be improved by the NIMPLY logic gate gene circuit composed of CRISPRi and strand replacement reactions.
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CCU Taiwan
Title
AgenT Dressing, Mr. Superbug Assassin fight with MRSA 

Abstract
Antibiotic-resistant bacteria, such as Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), are an emerging threat to global health and development. MRSA infects victims through open wounds and remains latent in macrophages. The infected MRSA is efficiently beat by the healthy immune system but causes bacteremia and endocarditis in patients with weak immunity. Here, we generate an antimicrobial dressing, namely AgenT, to prevent MRSA infection through open wounds on patients with weak immunity. AgenT Dressing is composed of an outer physical defense Polyurethane layer, an absorptive middle layer composed of alginate and chitosan, and an antimicrobial collagen layer with antimicrobial peptides and cell-penetrating peptides to target both intracellular and extracellular MRSA infections. We believe that AgenT will be a new treatment option to stop MRSA infections before it becomes worse. Fight MRSA with Mr. Superbug Assassin!  
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NWU-CHINA-B
Title
The transformation journey of ginsenosides

Abstract
  Ginseng is the main source of ginsenosides, but unfortunately, its growth cycle is very slow and it is susceptible to seasonal climate and other factors, its yield is limited.In order to overcome this problem, the SS-bgly gene derived from Sulfolobus solfataricus was highly expressed in pichia coli system after codon optimization, and the enzymatic reaction conditions of conversion of ginsenoside substrate Rb1 to CK from SS-bgly were explored.Under optimized enzymatic reaction conditions, the recombinant SS-bgly can transform ginsenoside Rb1 with higher substrate concentration into CK, which is conducive to the large-scale production of ginsenoside CK.
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Stuttgart
Title
TardiSun - Innovative UV Protection

Abstract
Our project TardiSun-innovative UV-Power takes advantage of the DSUP protein, which can be found in tardigrades and protects the DNA from UV-radiation. The aim of the project is to improve the life cell imaging method by using the protein within HeLa-cells. Furthermore, we like to express and isolate the protein in Escherichia coli to dissolve the protein into a liquid. In this context we want to find out if the absorbance properties are independent of the DNA protection function. The developed liquid could be used to protect other surfaces. 
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TU Kaiserslautern
Title
MoClo Mania - revolutionizing protein production by establishing the Modular Cloning system in Leishmania tarentolae

Abstract
Large quantities of protein are needed every year for research and medical purposes. Production of heterologous proteins in genetically modified microbial hosts has long been established as a biotechnological standard. Still, the production of proteins destined for therapeutic application in humans, often proves to be challenging for conventional host organisms due to complex post-translational modifications most mammalian proteins undergo. Specific modification patterns, such as human-like glycosylation, cannot be replicated in microbial expression hosts, yet are essential to the protein´s functionality. Recently, the protozoan parasite Leishmania tarentolae has emerged as a favorable eukaryotic expression host because of its human-like glycosylation capabilities. To facilitate the use of Leishmania tarentolae, we established a library of genetic parts suitable for the usage of the Modular Cloning system within Leishmania tarentolae. This paves the way to a versatile and expandable gene part collection, making the expression of human-like glycosylated proteins more feasible and effective.
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UNILausanne
Title
Aprifreeze – biological treatments to protect apricot trees from frost damage

Abstract
Late spring freezes cause frost damage in plants, which results in important crop losses, notably for apricots in the Swiss region Valais. When the temperatures drop below zero, ice crystals form and destroy sensitive plant tissues. This problem is exacerbated by Pseudomonas syringae syringae, a common pathogen of apricot trees producing an ice-nucleation protein that promotes ice crystal formation. Our project aims to find biological treatments to protect apricot trees from frost damage. We pursue three different combinable approaches. Firstly, we engineer Escherichia coli to overproduce antifreeze proteins, which we purify and spray onto the plants, so that they bind to ice crystals and inhibit their growth. Secondly, we also produce tailocins, bactericidal protein complexes, to specifically kill P. syringae. Lastly, we want to use a phage that delivers CRISPR/Cas9 and a guide RNA into P. syringae on the plants to delete the gene coding for the ice nucleating protein. 
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OhioState
Title
Lipid-A Phighter - an engineered phage therapy to combat sepsis

Abstract
Sepsis is caused by the overreaction of the immune system to an infection. This overreaction can starve organs of oxygen leading to tissue death, organ failure, and even death. Approximately 1 in 5 deaths worldwide are sepsis-related. When sepsis is caused by a bacterial infection, the immune system reacts to an endotoxin, lipid-A. Our solution was a phage that can kill bacteria and release molecules that competitively inhibit or modify lipid A such that the immune response is reduced. We designed recombinant plasmids with multiple promoters and different anti-lipid A genes to be inserted into the phage genome. Beyond the lab, we created a predictive model for baseline gene expression to compare promoter strengths. Additionally, we worked to propose legislation promoting phage therapy and spread awareness about sepsis by creating a children's book. 
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BNUZ-China
Title
E.Coli Keen Doctor

Abstract
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major chronic disease with high incidence, poor prognosis and complicated complications, which has become a major public health problem endangering global public health. Indoxyl sulfate is the key urotoxin that promotes the progression of chronic kidney disease, and its precursor, Indole, is formed by tryptophan metabolized by the E.coil, then is metabolized by hepatocytes and eventually produce it. This year, we are committed to using engineered bacteria for special therapy in the following three ways: Firstly, we prevent our chassis metabolism from producing indole and enhance the competitive advantage of the chassis; Secondly, we use engineered bacteria to convert tryptophan into indole propionic acid, a substance conducive to enhancing intestinal mucosal barrier. In addition, we use engineered bacteria to promote the growth of other probiotics and improve the ecology of intestinal flora. Through the above ways, we believe that CKD will be well treated.
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OUC-R
Title
RegulatorZ:A gene expression regulator achieved by conformation changes of Z-DNA

Abstract
Based on the study of our team PI, We designed a DNA double-loop structure with hairpin, APP sequence, promoter sequence and ribozyme gene. By adding inducer, the conformation of DNA changed and ribozyme gene expressed normally. We plan to use this switch to simulate the effects of special structures such as left spiral DNA and cross structure on gene expression in organisms, and it can be applied to detect whether cobalt ions, nickel ions and ZBP1 protein are contained in the environment. In further studies we also focus on diseases caused by DNA conformational changes, like Alzheimer's Disease and Breast Cancer, seeking a way of detection of these diseases and an easy and quick method to show the diagnosing results. 
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Paris Bettencourt
Title
Mini.ink: think big, go with minicells

Abstract
Biosafety is central when manipulating GMOs. We aim to participate in increasing biosafety by using minicells, nanosized and chromosome-free bacterial cells formed by abnormal division of rod-shaped bacteria. We observed their behaviour and hypothesized their use as chassis for local production of desired proteins, without purification expenses.This project is centered around the production of compounds through minicells of E.coli MG1655 containing a plasmid of interest. Minicells are produced using two approaches: overexpression of the FtsZ ring and deletion of the min operon.In parallel, a bioreactor for cultivation and isolation of minicells from parental cells was designed to guarantee a final genomic DNA-free sample. Filtration and introduction of an infection-defective lambda phage into the genome of parental cells was implemented to achieve higher separation yield. We focused the project on production of indigo pigment and found a method to safely dye textile without purification or addition of chemicals.
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HK GTC
Title
PETase & Related Analogous Chimera Transfused in Computer & AI Learning

Abstract
Plastic pollution has been a global issue since the last century. In this study, we provide solutions to alleviate the plastic pollution problem from multiple perspectives. We developed a dual enzyme system as chimeras between PETase and MHETase to degrade polyethylene terephthalate (PET) into its constituent monomers. The performance of PETase and MHETase cocktail mixtures is also compared for the extent of hydrolysis of amorphous PET film, and the mixture exhibits improved depolymerization activity compared with the single enzyme. A survey of 60 items, aimed to investigate knowledge, values and actions of secondary students towards plastic pollution, was designed and conducted in 4 secondary schools. The findings suggest the need for environmental education to engage students to take part in preserving the natural environment. Drone and AI technology was applied to train and develop a deep learning PET bottle detection model, which maps plastic pollution on beaches. 
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Aix-Marseille
Title
ARBO-BLOCK : To a novel eco-friendly way to prevent mosquito-transmitted viral diseases spread

Abstract
Arboviral diseases, such as Zika, Dengue and Chikungunia are a serious threat to human health as no vaccines against them exist. Furthermore, global warming is causing the spread of the mosquito vectors of these diseases, including to the South of France. However, mosquitos are an important element of biodiversity in the environment and part of ecosystem food chains.We have designed and engineered ARBO-BLOCK, an innovative, and eco-friendly solution to prevent arboviral diseases spread. Using a modified bacterium from the mosquito microbiota to specifically detect and kill only dangerous virus-infected mosquitoes, while preserving uninfected mosquitoes.ARBO-BLOCK is designed around a timed lysis device, that results in bacterial lysis and release of large amounts of arthropod lethal toxins accumulated following the detection of viruses in the mosquito gut. 
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UM Macau
Title
BADY--Beer Antioxidation and Depurination Yeast

Abstract
Gout is a common rheumatic disease. Symptoms including swollen, red, hot, and stiff joints. The accumulated purine in beer is one of the reasons that cause gout after drinking beer. Low purine beer, therefore, can reduce the risk of beer drinkers suffering from gout. Meanwhile, oxidation in beer causes off-flavors and darkened color. Based on these problems, our team proposed to edit the yeast used in beer fermentation in order to produce a beer with low purine content and good antioxidant properties. We engineered the wild-type yeast by synthetic biology method such that the engineered yeast is able to produce and secrete three enzymes--purine nucleoside phosphorylase1 (PNP1), superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), and endochitinase (chit42). PNP1 can improve the utilization of purines, hence prevents purine accumulation in beer. The SOD1 and endochitinase will increase antioxidation in the final product.
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Fudan
Title
Candicamera

Abstract
Candida albicans cause diseases as vaginal infections, affecting up to 75% of women. However, current detection methods are either professional, time-consuming, inaccurate, or expensive. We have develop "Candicamera", a product that allows rapid detection of Candida albicans in resource-limited settings and for point-of-care analysis. By applying loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) combined with lateral flow assay (LFA), our detection method is accurate, fast and independent of expensive equipments. Besides, We designed gene circuits using new iGEM Registry parts gp2 and gp5.7 which reduce the background protein production of engineering bacteria and specifically produce the enzyme entailed in detection so that the cost can be reduced tremendously, thus providing access for women in resource-limited areas to routinely perform the test. We carried out extensive human practices to bring forward our project as well as synthetic biology into people.
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UPF Barcelona
Title
ARIA: A democratizing AI-Synbio system to fight against antibiotic resistant bacteria

Abstract
Drug-resistant bacteria cause 700,000 deaths per year, which could rise to 10 million by 2050. When standard treatments are not effective, saving lives implies rapidly profiling the pathogen's resistance, but traditional methods can delay this process from hours to days. The Antibiotic Resistance Inference Array (ARIA) aims to become a proof-of-concept for an innovative system that tackles this problem. First, we combine advanced algorithms to analyze large amounts of microbe genomic and functional data and define lists of resistance-related markers. Then, we create a library of self-growable biosensors that detect these markers, and we deploy them on a paper-based array: by adding a pathogenic sample to the array, a fluorescence pattern emerges. Finally, a cross-platform computer vision application automatically extracts from this pattern the set of markers found and sends it to an artificial intelligence module, which integrates it with patient-specific information to infer the most suitable countermeasure available.
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FSU
Title
ChiFresh: Combatting Food Insecurity by Extending the Shelf Life of Fresh Produce 

Abstract
Florida's Big Bend Area consists of 11 counties. At least,150,000 members of our community are experiencing food insecurity. There are multiple causes of food insecurity including low household income and food deserts. We are addressing the problem by extending the shelf life of fresh produce so more members of our community have access to balanced meals. Our solution is the ChiFresh system composed of debit card-accessible refrigerators in areas with decreased access to fresh produce, a chitosan-based protective coating that extends the shelf life of fresh produce, and chitin-based packaging that is biodegradable. We focused on lowering the cost and environmental impact of chitin production. We developed engineered cells intended to secrete chitin known as the Chitin Secretion Cells and we converted Brewer's Spent Yeast into a medium for growing the Chitin Secretion Cells. ChiFresh has the potential to combat food insecurity in the Big Bend area and beyond.
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Aalto-Helsinki
Title
GutLux: shedding light on your gut

Abstract
Certain associations have been established that link several metabolites associated with the gut microbiota to mental disorders, amongst other illnesses. However, reliable measurements of these compounds are a major drawback for a better understanding of the connection between the gut microbiota and the brain. GutLux, our ingestible biosensor, tackles this by measuring the concentration of the metabolites in vivo, inside the gut. GutLux is comprised of two parts. The biological component responds to the concentration of metabolite by producing a light signal that can be measured quantitatively. The electronic component measures this signal and converts it to readable, wirelessly transmittable data. Our design focuses on compounds associated with mental health, but its use could be extended to other gut metabolites by adapting the biological component. In addition, we have devoted ourselves to create awareness of the importance of the gut microbiota in our wellbeing and its impact on mental health.
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KCL UK
Title
Developing Novel Strategies to Advance the Treatment of Spinal Cord Injuries

Abstract
Spinal cord injuries (SCI) result from spinal cord damage and are characterized by nerve degeneration, growth inhibition and inflammation at the lesion site. As the central nervous system has limited regenerative abilities, neural recovery plateaus and a glial scar forms inhibiting axonal regeneration. Between 250,000 to 500,000 individuals worldwide are impacted yearly by life-altering repercussions, including paralysis. Our project focuses on developing a therapy for SCI through the convergence of synthetic biology, recombinant protein technology and regenerative medicine. We have designed a personalised 3D-bioprinted polycaprolactone scaffold, with growth-supporting topographical features for implementation alongside our synthetic mussel foot protein bioadhesive. This multidirectional approach ensures our scaffold remains fixed and encourages axonal regeneration. Furthermore, we have incorporated the use of our optimised chondroitinase ABC enzyme to enhance functional recovery and improve our treatment. Our enzyme degrades chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans and has the potential to improve axonal sprouting following SCI.
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Rio UFRJ Brazil
Title
Ammit: the new serological diagnosis strategy for arboviroses

Abstract
Dengue flavivirus (DENV) is responsible for many deaths worldwide. The existing diagnostic assays are non-specific and may cross-react with other flaviviruses, such as Zika which leads to false-positive results in serological tests. To solve this problem, we developed Ammit: a chimeric protein made from DENV epitopes, used as an antigen to capture anti-Dengue antibodies. Based on the bioengineering cycle, we selected the most promising epitopes for Ammit's design. For this, we analyzed its structure and binding to antibodies using different computational tools. The DNA sequence of the best protein was synthesized and cloned into a plasmid. After transformation of E. coli, expression was induced and the protein was purified. Next, we tested the binding of Ammit to commercial anti-DENV2 antibodies. We also consulted professionals to verify the project's impact on complications due to misdiagnosis. Eventually, Ammit will constitute a point of care device that will provide fast and specific results.
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CAU China
Title
SSR: Saline-alkaline Soil Restorer

Abstract
Saline-alkaline soil, containing heavy soluble salt and alkali, can endanger the environmental safety and agricultural production, and thus is a global concern. γ-PGA, a polymer formed by glutamic acid, is an emerging solution for this problem because it can prevent soil moisture from evaporating, help to build ideal soil structure, absorb the exchangeable sodium ion and act as buffer in soil pH changes. Aimed to restore saline-alkaline soil, above all, we engineered Corynebacterium glutamicum to make it produce γ-PGA based on genes from Bacillus subtilis. Secondly, to harvest γ-PGA as much as possible, we modified genes in oxaloacetic acid node and α-ketoglutarate node to yield more glutamic acid, the raw material for γ-PGA. Finally, in view of biosafety, we designed a kill switch that can only be turned on when both the ionic strength and pH of the soil decrease to an expected level.
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QHFZ
Title
Tyrian Purple Producer

Abstract
Tyrian purple, mainly composed of 6,6'-dibromoindigo (6BrIG), is an ancient dye extracted from sea snails and was recently demonstrated as a biocompatible semiconductor material. However, its synthesis remains limited due to uncharacterized biosynthetic pathways and the difficulty of regiospecific bromination. Here, we introduce an effective 6BrIG production strategy in Escherichia coli using tryptophan 6-halogenase SttH, tryptophanase TnaA and flavin-containing monooxygenase MaFMO. After our transformation, E. coli will become a producer of tyrian purple, and it has been proved to be used as a biological dye.
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SHSBNU China
Title
Commercially Adoptable Reusing Option for Luxurious IoNs in Effluents (CAROLINE)

Abstract
With the aggravating problem of precious metal profligacy, a low-cost reusing device must bedeveloped. In our project, we use Ag+ aptamers to demonstrate the possibility of using ionspecific aptamer connected to fusion proteins that are bound cellulose to capture andrelease silver ions in water.
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IISER Kolkata
Title
naMOOste - A novel solution to the problem of Subclinical Bovine Mastitis in dairy industry

Abstract
Subclinical Bovine mastitis is a ubiquitous problem in the dairy industry. Clinical stages of this are associated with inflammation of the bovine mammary-parenchyma tissue following pathogenic infection. Whereas the early subclinical stage has invisible symptoms - making it difficult to detect and cure. Present detection techniques are either expensive, inaccessible, or time-consuming, and current treatment methods use antibiotics leading to the development of AMR in causative pathogens resulting in a lot of harm. Our team aims to develop an antibiotic-free treatment method along with a real-time cheap, colourimetric detection kit which when used at regular intervals will detect subclinical stage from milk samples. Early detection complemented with better treatment methods and hygiene maintenance can reduce the rate of disease progression. The team engaged in learning real-world problems faced by stakeholders due to bovine mastitis - tried to mitigate those in our project and spread awareness about preventing its transmission.
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Missouri Miners
Title
Salmonella Sleuth

Abstract
The objective of our bio-electric device is to detect Enterobacteriaceae, which are Gram‐negative, non‐spore forming, predominantly motile, facultative anaerobic bacilli. These bacteria communicate predominantly through quorum sensing, a biochemical process where signaling molecules turn genes on and off depending on density. By coupling this communication system with a fluorescent reporter and electronic components, we can improve upon pre-existing biosensors by increasing scalability and portability. Through the use of bioengineered E. coli cells that react to the presence of autoinducer-2, we produce a measurable fluorescent signal. The amount of fluorescence is then correlated to contamination using our dry-lab mechanical/electrical device: a cost-effective fluorometer built to test samples in common microcentrifuge tubes. Missouri_Miner's 2021 project blends the boundaries between synthetic biology and electronics, seeking to improve the viability of biosensors in food manufacturing.
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Stony Brook
Title
MlrA Expression in E. coli to Break Down Microcystin from Cyanobacterial Harmful Algal Blooms

Abstract
Microcystin-LR (MC-LR), a toxin produced by cyanobacterial algal blooms, contaminates lakes and causes severe illness and death in humans and wildlife. Removing MC-LR with conventional techniques is costly and produces toxic byproducts. Therefore, we plan to use MlrA, an enzyme native to Sphingomonas spp., which linearizes the ring structure of MC-LR and reduces its toxicity. While previous works have expressed this enzyme in E. coli, we hope to achieve higher yields through two novel methods. The first anchors MlrA on the outer membrane of E. coli via a fusion protein with poly-γ-glutamate. The second secretes MlrA into the periplasm using TatExpress, a super-secreting strain, to increase the expression of transport membrane proteins. This project also proposes a microcystin detection method using a two-hybrid bacterial assay. Overall, employing these modified bacteria into a biofilter and detection system is a potential method for reducing microcystin toxicity in a safe, cost-effective way.
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Jiangnan China
Title
Save Coral Reefs at Risks: Synthesis of an eco-friendly bio-sunscreen by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Abstract
Every year, about 14,000 tons of sunscreen are deposited into the ocean, producing a large amount of chemical pollution, especially oxybenzone and octyl-methoxycinnamate. This has greatly worsened the phenomenon of coral bleaching, and will further lead to the collapse of marine ecosystem, as coral reefs are home to 25% marine species. To alleviate the current situation, we are developing an eco-friendly bio-sunscreen that is harmless to coral reefs and the marine ecosystem. Inspired by how marine species in nature protect themselves from UV rays, we have decided to produce gadusol, a natural UV filter originated from zebrafish, as the main component of our bio-sunscreen product. We first introduced the synthetic pathway of gadusol into Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Then, the utilization pathway of xylose was also introduced to engineer it into a high-yield cell factory. By doing this, we hope to balance the use of sunscreen and the protection of coral reefs.
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まとめ

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大変多くのチームが、オリジナリティ溢れたプロジェクトを行っていることがわかっていただけたかと思います。本記事では、iGEM2021に出場したチームの1/4ほどのチームしかとりあげられておりません。さらに興味をもっていただいた方は、その他のバージョンも参考にしていただけたらと思います。

iGEM2021全チームプロジェクト概要 ~第一弾~
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