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最終更新日 : 2021年11月13日

iGEM2021全チームプロジェクト概要 ~第三弾~

本記事は、iGEM 2021年に参加した全チームのプロジェクトについてまとめた記事の第三弾になります。(全四回の第三回)。
iGEM 2021では、どのようなテーマがあったのか網羅的にわかるようになっておりますので、ざっと眺めて見てはいかがでしょうか。


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iGEM2021全チームプロジェクト概要 ~第一弾~
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iGEM2021全チームプロジェクト概要 ~第三弾~
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iGEM2021全チームプロジェクト概要 ~第四弾~
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※本まとめは、全てのデータをiGEM2021のオープンなデータから取得しております。

データの見方

(例) チーム名(チームページリンク付き)
タイトル
要約
Wikiへのリンク

Vilnius-Lithuania
Title
AmeBye: prevention and detection tools for eradication of infectious disease amebiasis

Abstract
Every year about 50 million people develop a symptomatic form of infectious disease amebiasis, and 100 000 die. Although the infection is most common in developing countries, it is relevant to the whole world as travelers and immigrants disseminate the infection.The annual rates, lack of publicly available diagnostic tests, inexistent prevention tools, and deadly consequences of pathogenesis progression have inspired us to create effective prevention and sensitive diagnostic tools to improve the control of this infection. The first solution - probiotic bacteria that synthesize naringenin - a compound that negatively affects the viability of E. histolytica. This would prevent the spread of amebiasis by asymptomatic people and the development of the infection to an invasive form. The second - a rapid diagnostic test, which is based on aptamers and is specific to ameba secreted proteins. This test would enable accurate and specific detection of the invasive E. histolytica infection.
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City of London UK
Title
Project Ribotox

Abstract
Pre-eclampsia is a condition that causes high blood pressure during and after pregnancy. Currently, It is detected after symptoms have arisen by old, antiquated methods that often result in misdiagnosis, ultimately leading to preventable complications in pregnancy such as foetal growth restriction, low birth weight and life-threatening seizures and blood clots. Project Ribotox aims to spread awareness about preeclampsia and to develop a screening tool using microRNA biomarkers twice as early into pregnancy as current methods allow, by detecting two upregulated miRNAs in the serum of patients with the condition with toehold switches, and a novel method of isothermal amplification. This test will be able to take place in a single tube at a single temperature, increasing the accessibility of RNA tests worldwide.
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ASTWS-China
Title
Enhanced “Plastic Eating” Biofilm System

Abstract
The synthetic plastic waste accumulated in modern society has formed a large-scale garbage belt in water bodies, which has polluted the global ecosystem and caused serious harm to the health and survival safety of human beings, animals, and plants. Last year, ASTWS2020 successfully developed the "biofilm system that can enrich and degrade plastic pollutants in water". Based on this, this year, we aim to explore the further optimization and upgrading of this plastic pollutant treatment system by means of genetic engineering. The main optimization schemes include: 1) using a dual enzyme (PETase and MHETase) system to achieve more safe and efficient degradation of micro-plastics. 2) Objective to optimize the expression system of enhanced biofilm compound double enzyme and realize the optimal expression scheme of enhanced biofilm, PETase, and MHETase.
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Lethbridge HS
Title
Knaptime is Over

Abstract
Our project is an RNAi-based herbicide targeting the invasive plant species, Centaurea stoebe, more commonly known as spotted knapweed. This project was inspired by the 2017 Kenow wildfire's devastating aftermath in Waterton National Park. The fire created the ideal environment for spotted knapweed to exponentially spread, limiting the resources for native plant species. Biological controls, manual removal, and chemical treatments are presently utilized to combat the infestation. However, these methods can be costly, time consuming or risk affecting local native species. Our project avoids these drawbacks. The bioengineered RNAi system would be delivered to specifically eliminate spotted knapweed by targeting a unique sequence in the Clp protease gene of the plant's chloroplast genome. We are using a new “one-pot” method for siRNA production and will first test our product on Arabidopsis thaliana. Knaptime is Over will help to preserve the world's biological diversity and test a new siRNA production method.
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Worldshaper-Shanghai
Title
AD fruit fly: a new drug screening model for Alzheimer's disease

Abstract
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease, and there is no effective drug to cure it now. It is urgent to establish an effective and rapid drug screening model for AD. This project is going to establish AD models using transgenic fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) carrying the UAS-APP transgene, which will express human APP protein in the fly nervous system by crossing to appl-Gal4 driver flies. These APP-expressing flies will produce AD-like symptoms, including Amyloid deposits, neuronal loss, axon degeneration, locomotor defect, and cognitive deficits, etc. Furthermore, some potential drugs will be selected to assess this fly AD model. We hope that one day Alzheimer's disease can be controlled and cured, and we are also working hard for this.
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Worldshaper-Nanjing
Title
Gutter oil purifier: turning waste into high value-added products

Abstract
Nowadays, gutter oil exists in the food industry at a very low cost, which threatens people's health. In order to solve the problems, we try to develop an efficient method to converge gutter oil into high value-added polyunsaturated fatty acids like linolenic acid. In this work, Yarrowia lipolytica has been selected as the model host to produce polyunsaturated fatty acids (linolenic acid) by using the waste oil in the kitchen waste as substrates. For this, we firstly enhance the ability of Y. lipolytica to utilize the waste oil by optimizing the fatty acid degradation pathway. Furthermore, the synthetic pathway of linolenic acid will be introduced into Y. lipolytica. The goal of this project is to make full use of the waste oil in the kitchen waste after simple treatment, so as to realize "turning waste into treasure".
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UFlorida
Title
Mitigating Antibiotic Resistance Through Alternative Selectable Markers and a Conjugative CRISPR Delivery System

Abstract
Antibiotic resistance is emerging as the center of a healthcare crisis worldwide. In order to mitigate the spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria, team UFlorida seeks to utilize metabolic enzymes in place of traditional antibiotic resistance markers when testing for transformants in the lab to further contribute to the ever growing synthetic biology library for better genetic engineering tools. UFlorida is also developing a two plasmid conjugation/CRISPR system that will deliver and induce the endonuclease activity of Cas9 protein to an antibiotic resistance gene in a bacteria. This will generate genome instability in our target host through a triad of double stranded DNA breaks, thereby killing the bacteria. We plan to utilize this system to target pathogenic, antibiotic resistant bacteria, and test our system with our novel selectable markers.
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USTC
Title
Tau-captamer the early diagnosis of Alzheimer disease

Abstract
It's reported that Tau protein level in serum may indicate AD progress. Thus, we devised a new-concept in vitro Tau detection method for early AD diagnosis, depending on the specific binding between aptamers and Tau proteins. First, a molecular switch transfers the aptamer-protein binding signal to a downstream signal pathway. Second, the downstream signal pathway amplifies the signal exponentially to a detectable level. Our method has more convenience, lower cost and higher specificity and sensitivity.
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SUSTech Shenzhen
Title
Development of gut microbes to prevent diarrhea-related dehydration

Abstract
Diarrhea is a major problem in third-world countries due to poor sanitation and limited access to clean water. Diarrhea in children (>5 years) accounts for approximately 11% of infection-related death.To address this problem, our objective is to develop engineered microbes that regulate water retention through colanic acid biosynthesis, triggered by dehydration cues including intestinal chloride concentration and pathogenic bacterium quorum sensing molecules (QSM). Pathogenic microbes release QSMs during severe dehydration, resulting in protective biofilm formation. We further include the triggered release of broad-spectrum antimicrobial peptides to displace the diarrhea-causing pathogens.As a case study, we selected Vibrio cholera as it is one of the major global causes of diarrhea. Due to the genetic circuit modularity, we can readily modify the quorum sensing module to target other pathogenic bacteria. The aim is to create broad-spectrum, cost-effective, readily accessible and convenient methods of diarrhea management.
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KAIT Japan
Title
Dietary habits changed by E. coli

Abstract
We thought that since E. coli is easy to grow and transform, we could create new foods by incorporating the enzymes of the microorganisms used in fermented foods.Although E. coli is often disliked by people, it is the perfect bacteria to use for experiments. By making E. coli familiar through its use in food, We want people to know that E. coli is an amazing organism.We also believe that the ease with which E. coli can be grown makes it possible to produce fermented foods in a non-specific environment. Fermented foods are known for their ease of nutrient absorption and long-term preservation, so We believe that they could be a solution to hunger.
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Shanghai HS
Title
The Inhibitory of COVID-19 Antibody Against the Mutant B.1.1.7

Abstract
COVID-19 is the pneumonia caused by SARS-CoV-2 using the S protein on the surface to combine with the ACE2 receptor. There are now more than 1.7 hundred million cases around the globe with approximately 388 million deaths. SARS-CoV-2 is RNA virus with high glycosylation of its S protein in which the mutation of S1 proteinand the RBD can arouse the infectivity of the virus to alter and even lead to immunologic escape. Known that the receptor ACE2 is highly conservative, the SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody targeting ACE2 had already been proved the ability to restrict its replication inside or outside human body without affecting the activity of ACE2. Given above, our research on testing whether this antibody can effectively inhibit the outbreak of mutant strain B.1.1.7 is significant.
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TEC COSTA RICA
Title
Chronobacter

Abstract
Inspired by the endless possibilities synthetic biology entails, we decided to approach its real life limitations as inspiration for our project and identified a problem: developing genetic circuits are biased to their core by combinatorial logic which limits functionality, circuit architecture and possible applications. Our objective is to pursue an incipient focus on genetic circuit development based on sequential logic, enabling new functions and expanding the possible applications for engineered organisms.We first developed a novel genetic counter system from which we constructed and modeled a genetic circuit, whose modularity enables it to behave as a toolbox with applications in all areas. To validate our approach we developed a framework and software which allow the construction of an extensive library of genetic circuits. This library can in turn be explored by several filters, designed to convey expression profiles, processes and functional applications of interest as defined by experts.
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XHD-Wuhan-B-China
Title
LCCD: Light Controlled Cell Division

Abstract
Bacterial population often display heterogeneity due to the fact that these individuals are always distributed in different stages of a life cycle, which is a problem for research or fermentation industry. In this project, we aim to block several fateful processes in E. coli cell cycle to prevent cell division, hence to create a uniformed population of synchronized individuals. To achieve this goal, we choose to combine the power of optogenetics, CRISPRi and RNAi. We use a two-component optical system of ccaR/ccaS to control CRISPRi and RNAi. Through light controlled CRISPRi and RNAi, we aim to target DnaA, FtsZ, MreB and oriC, to stop cell division under green light. If fully developed, our strategy can bring convenience to 3D genome research and fermentation process. Because light controlled gene interference is such a powerful tool, it has a promising future of treating human diseases.
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HKBU
Title
Ostamer: Tackling Osteogenesis Imperfecta

Abstract
Osteogenesis imperfecta is a group of genetic disorders that results in brittle bones due to improper collagen formation.In osteoblasts of OI patients, the Wnt signalling pathway is inhibited by sclerostin via binding to LRP5/6 co-receptors, thus lowering beta-catenin concentrations, gene expression and thus bone formation. Suppressing sclerostin by a sclerostin antibody has been shown to enhance bone mass and bone strength. However, in phase III clinical trials, the antibody also imposes severe cardiac ischemic events and worsen cardiovascular diseases in OI patients.Ostamer, our therapeutic aptamer, tackles this development via selectively binding and inhibiting loop3 of sclerostin in order to prevent sclerostin from binding to the osteoblast receptors for treatment of osteogenesis imperfecta, as well as to preserve sclerostin's secondary role as a cardiovascular regulator. Our Ostamer has received US FDA Orphan Drug Designation in 2019 in response to successful clinical testing on OI mice.
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Tsinghua
Title
Gut matters: A diagnostic tool and multiprobiotics therapy for IBD

Abstract
Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) is a chronic disease severely impacting the life quality of an increasing number of patients worldwide. As IBD is hard to diagnose and difficult to cure, Tsinghua iGEM 2021 team aims to develop a solution to facilitates IBD diagnosis and therapeutic cures. For the diagnostic tool, an RNA-guided fusion protein is used to specifically label miRNA biomarkers for IBD, enabling fast detection of these biomarkers from blood/saliva samples. For the therapy, our approach contains the following points: strains of probiotic E. coli and L. lactis are engineered to produce microcin, treatment protein, and bile salt hydrolase, targeting gut microflora composition, mucus healing process, and metabolic environment regulation respectively. Additionally, a new cell-coating technology is employed to improve the delivery efficiency. This approach should bring new light to the understanding and treatment of IBD.
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XHD-Wuhan-Pro-China
Title
Sober up: enhanced degradation of alcohol and acetaldehyde in human through E. coli Nissle 1917

Abstract
Our project aims to achieve enhanced degradation of alcohol and acetaldehyde in human small intestines by constructing a probiotic that contains the adh gene for producing ADH, and the ald gene for producing ALDH. Besides, we add the nadE gene for NAD kinase and nox for NADH oxidase. These two enzymes promote the production of NAD+ and balances the NAD+/NADH ratio which is disturbed by the metabolism of ethanol and acetaldehyde to ensure adequate energy supply to the reactions. Alcohol is known to bring great damage to the organs, especially the liver. Worse, many East Asians carry mutated genes that result in even more accumulation of acetaldehyde, a toxic substance. According to WHO, three million people worldwide die from harmful use of alcohol every year, which represents 5.3 % of all deaths., Therefore, we believe that alcohol poisoning is a serious issue and should be resolved as soon as possible.
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XHD-Wuhan-A-China
Title
Nitrate Decomposer: decrease nitrate in soil with rhizobium

Abstract
Soil compaction is a concrete manifestation of soil degradation. Acidification and salinization caused by excessive use of chemical fertilizer will damage soil structure and lead to soil hardening and compaction. Rhizobia is a type of bacteria widely found in roots soil. In our project, we aim to solve the soil salinization and acidification problem by using the denitrification effect of rhizobia to reduce the adverse consequences of soil hardening. Many rhizobia have the ability of denitrification by decomposing nitrates. We enhanced the denitrification ability of rhizobia by introducing plasmids containing nirK or napA genes, which code for key enzymes in denitrification. This new strain of rhizobium can not only fix nitrogen but also break it down to release the fixed nitrogen from the soil. Furthermore, we also studied the promoter that can sense nitrate concentration, which laid a foundation for the self-initiated denitrification of rhizobia under high nitrate concentration environment.
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NUS Singapore
Title
Photo-Regulated Yeast for Synthetic Biology Manufacturing (PRYSM)

Abstract
COVID-19 has disrupted global food supply chains, exposing the fragility of Singapore's food supply chains, of which 98% of food is imported. As Singapore moves to accomplish the national goal of locally producing 30% of its food consumption by 2030, the demand for suitable pest control in the ever-increasing number of farms will surge. Synthetic pesticides are still considered the gold standard in pest control. However, concerns with the negative environmental/health effects of synthetic pesticides limits their use. Biological antimicrobial peptides have been identified as potential substitutes, however, with current Bioproduction methods it is economically infeasible to produce such compounds for use as bio-pesticides. This project aims to produce Human Beta Defensin (as an exemplar) using a more cost effective approach for use as a bio-bactericide/fungicide at the farms. This is achieved through the development an optogenetically controlled yeast chassis and an open-source bioreactor designed for the chassis.
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NAWI-Graz
Title
Phos4us: A novel biosensor system for quorum sensing mediated phosphorus solubilisation

Abstract
Phosphorus is an essential element for all living beings. It provides life not only for humans but is substantial for the growth of all plants on the planet. About 80% of the finite phosphate-containing rocks mined, is used in crop fertilizers and with the current rate of consumption the phosphorus sources might be depleted in less than a century.Our aim was to design a mediator organism that effectively regulates processes involved in phosphate solubilization and therefore increases the phosphate uptake efficiency of plants.We created the “Phos4us” system, which makes use of an already existent phosphate regulation pathway in Escherichia coli to react to high inorganic phosphate levels in the soil and produces the quorum sensing molecule 3OC6HSL. This signal allows the cell to actively communicate with neighboring microorganisms, which in return respond with growth and solubilization of the abundant phosphate.
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UNIZAR
Title
NANOBODY DE NOVO DISCOVERY BY ARTIFICIAL CDR RECOMBINATION

Abstract
Nanobodies are proteins that selectively bind to an antigen. Due to its smaller size, they present advantages in diagnosis and therapeutics. However, they are animal-derived, expensive and difficult to produce.Complementary determining regions or CDRs (CDR1, CDR2, CDR3) are unique nanobody regions involved in antigen binding. However, even nanobodies that bind to the same antigen have different binding affinities, as they present different CDRs.Our goal is creating a library of artificially developed nanobodies that bind to a specific antigen. Inspired by nature, this is achieved by random in-vitro recombination of the different CDR genetic sequences of already characterized nanobodies that bind to said antigen.These newly formed nanobody gene fragments are expressed in E. coli, generating a library for the screening of nanobodies with higher binding affinity than the starting ones. This way, our system improves the traditional method for nanobody production, being faster, cheaper and cruelty-free.
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Toulouse INSA-UPS
Title
Elixio, a synthetic microbial consortium for sustainable violet fragrances

Abstract
Perfumes influence perception in our daily life. Behind flowers and chic clichés, perfume reality is not so glamorous as most are issued from non-sustainable processes. This is especially true for scents impossible to extract from the so-called “mute flowers” like the violet. Our Elixio project aims to demonstrate that valuable fragrances could be easily recreated using synthetic biology, even by a small team of students. We designed a synthetic consortium involving engineered cyanobacterium and yeast and allowing a sustainable production of the violet scent molecules from atmospheric CO2. Over the summer, we successfully engineered both strains to conditionally express all the enzymes necessary to recreate the violet fragrance. Moreover, we demonstrated the production of ionones by our yeast which actually smells like violet! The Elixio project has already drawn attention from the industry and we are definitely proud of the new openings created between iGEM and the world of perfume.
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Navarra BG
Title
A project to provide UV protection for plants on Mars

Abstract
A major factor limiting the expansion of human space exploration is the enormous logistical costs of launching and resupplying resources from Earth. Plants could play a critical role in providing food and precursors for manufacturing medicines and materials in long-duration missions to Mars. The absence of a significant ozone layer and low atmospheric pressure on Mars results in a higher surface flux of UV radiation. UV is potentially damaging to DNA, RNA, proteins, and generates oxidative stress. Therefore, it will be essential to engineering improved photoprotection mechanisms that enhance the performance of the light-harvesting machinery and UV-protection. This project aims to design strategies that endow plants with sunscreens that protect them from harmful UV effects in harsh planetary environments. The proposed solution is to construct a series of Biobricks with UVR8 and PAP1 Arabidopsis genes that allow GoldenBraid assembly of different transcriptional units to produce UV-resistant plants.
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UI Indonesia
Title
Helicostrike

Abstract
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a gram negative spiral shaped microaerophilic bacteria that resides in the stomachs of almost half the world population. Its pathogenic effect due to numerous virulence factors lead to various gastric pathologies including peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. Although it has been established since 1982, we are facing some treatment challenges especially regarding the biofilm formation and its role in antibiotic resistance. So, we engineer an E. coli, specifically E. coli Nissle 1917, a probiotic strain to be able to chase the H. pylori, disperse its biofilm using a protease: Proteinase-K, and kill the H. pylori using a antimicrobial peptide, PGLa-AM1.
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Ionis Paris
Title
Cobatect

Abstract
Vitamin B12 (VB12) deficiency is a common and prevalent condition which can engender neurological and hematological abnormalities. However, current measurements of VB12 level are usually erratic and lack sensitivity. Here, we offer a portable and easy-to-use bioelectronic sensor for assessing the VB12 level in the blood. This home health monitoring device is similar to those that evaluate blood sugar level, with finger-prick testing. Our biosensor uses a modified bacterial co-culture to produce electricity in the presence of VB12. More specifically, a genetically modified Escherichia coli carries a vitamin B12 riboswitch which controls the biosynthesis of lactate. The latter is subsequently metabolized by Shewanella oneidensis to produce a reducing potential. Shewanella oneidensis has the prodigious ability to reduce metal ions, so when it is in contact with an anode it is possible to create electricity. Your B12 levels needs to be kept in check? Use Cobatect !
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Uppsala
Title
Enhancing FGF-2 towards a more affordable growth medium for the production of cultivated meat.

Abstract
Cultivated meat is produced from animal cells grown in a bioreactor with enriching growth media to meet the growing demand for meat. This innovation in the food industry aims to solve some of the world's most pressing global crises such as mass animal slaughter, climate change, deforestation and emerging pandemics. Among all the essentials needed for the growth media, FGF2 or bFGF, basic fibroblast growth factor, is one of the most expensive. This is due to its unstable and short-acting characteristics but most importantly, its production cost. We aimed to improve a number of FGF2 properties that include binding affinity to its receptor, thermal stability and solubility. We designed three such mutants of wild-type FGF2, with each variant being successfully expressed and purified. Some of them were scaled up further. Our long-term goal is to be able to offer an improved growth factor to industry.
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Crete
Title
A PLANT-BASED EDIBLE VACCINE EXPRESSING A CHIMERIC TRIPARTITE SPIKE-S1 PROTEIN OF SARS-CoV-2 FOR COVID-19 CONTROL

Abstract
SARS-CoV-2, the causal agent of COVID-19 pandemic, caused over 200,000 deaths globally in the first 4 months. Overcoming this pandemic is a great challenge for humanity and it is still a main concern for the scientific communities worldwide. We decided to develop an edible vaccine for SARS-CoV-2 aiming to be a more accessible and easily distributed alternative to conventional vaccines. To create this vaccine, we designed a synthetic gene that expresses specific SARS-CoV-2 antigens into plant cells. Our synthetic construct codes for a chimeric tripartite Spike S1 protein that covers three distinct mutants of SARS-CoV-2. Using the agroinfiltration method we produce high levels of the chimeric S1-protein at the lettuce cells membrane. This antigen protein will specifically activate the Mucosal Immunity in lab animals upon consuming of the plant tissue. This is the first step of our vaccine development that will be followed by the immunization of lab mice.
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NPU-CHINA
Title
A self lysis feed toxinicide

Abstract
Aflatoxin is a strong carcinogen widely existing in feed crops. Aflatoxin residues in livestock deep-processing products seriously threaten food safety. This project uses Bacillus subtilis, which is generally considered safe, as a carrier to assemble aflatoxin degradation proteins, stable-phase promoters and self-cleavage protein. Combined with the selenium-enrichment function of Bacillus subtilis, a strain of intelligent Bacillus subtilis with self cleavage function, which can simultaneously degrade aflatoxin and enrich selenium, is constructed. Finally, a new, safe and selenium rich high-value feed additive is provided.
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GCGS China
Title
Fish Hola- An aptamer based lateral flow strip for rapid detection of fish spoilage.

Abstract
Nowadays, consumers' demand for fresh fish is sharply increasing. In the process of cultivation, transportation or storage and the spoilage caused by microbial invasion will affect the health of the fish itself and consumers. Pseudomonas Aeruginosa is an important pathogen of fish, which can lead to corruption of fish and health problems of consumers. In order to reduce these risks demonstrated, a rapid detection of corruption is needed.Our project aimed to use structure switching fluorescence method to verify the existing aptamer found in papers that specifically bind AHLs, the quorum sensing signals of P.aeruginosa. After the verification, we found the aptamers can specifically bind to AHLs based on which we successfully constructed an aptamer-based lateral flow test strip. At last, we accomplished the final version of the test trips that was more portable, rapid and efficient for practical application scenarios.
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Tianjin
Title
CREATE:a yeast without chromosomes

Abstract
As the carrier of genetic information, chromosomes are vital to cells and even life. Most of the time, we cannot imagine what would happen to a cell without chromosomes. However, like Monkey King's curse in Journey to the West, chromosomes sometimes can be a burden to the cells. In our project, we have gotten out of the rut to create the CREATE(Chromosome Released Eukaryote which is Active, Transitory and Environment-friendly), a yeast without chromosomes. Such cells have no chromosomes and cannot proliferate, but endogenous enzymes still remain active for a certain period of time. Taking advantage of these characteristics, CREATE might be a much safer bio-reactor used in drug delivery and gene therapy. Obviously, the applications of CREATE will never be limited to any certain field. We believe that CREATE has great potential to be applied in more fields deeply and widely.
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Istanbul Tech
Title
Enhanced Vitamin B12 Synthesis from the Waste Li-ion Batteries by Using Scaffold System

Abstract
Lithium-ion batteries are one of the most common batteries used in the 21st century, particularly for electric cars. When their lifespan is over, metals especially found in their cathodes, such as lithium, cobalt, and nickel, should be recycled both to avoid contamination and to regain these valuable materials for further usage. LiCoO2, their main component, can be separated by chemical/biological leaching process, and the remaining cobalt metal can be used for different purposes, in our case for vitamin B12 (a.k.a. cobalamin) synthesis. Although the demand for cobalamin has been increasing, its commercial production is still time-consuming and inefficient. Our purpose is to enhance the Vitamin B12 synthesis by improving the efficiency of rate limiting-step in the pathway via enzyme scaffold systems. Besides, by using the cobalt ions from waste lithium-ion batteries for B12 synthesis we aim to increase B12 production and decrease the waste of lithium-ion batteries.
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Saint Joseph
Title
Cellulophile

Abstract
Water pollution caused by paper waste is a huge ecological problem. Cellulose, a polysaccharide, is the main compound of paper products and can be degraded by cellulases; primarily performing hydrolysis of the 1,4-beta-D-glycosidic linkages to produce monosaccharides, smaller polysaccharides and oligosaccharides (2,3). In this project, we aimed to find a biological solution to water pollution caused by paper contaminants. For this purpose, we used endoglucanase II enzyme from Trichoderma reesei and removed the linker region, CBM domain and the signal peptide from the gene (BBa_K3941001). Additionally, for the purpose of increase enzyme activity, we designed 2 mutant forms of this enzyme and conducted experiments (BBa_K3941003 and BBa_K3941002). For the same purpose, we also worked on the catalytic region of CelAB cellulase (BBa_K3941000) which produced from Teredinibacter turnerae. The results of this project promise that paper contaminated waters can be cleaned much more effectively and eco-friendly by using cellulases.
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MIPT MSU
Title
Final destination for cancer: using viral sorting and targeting mechanisms for RNA molecules delivery

Abstract
Our team propose a new method of targeted RNA delivery to tumour cells using membrane-derived extracellular vesicles with fusion proteins. The endogenous retroviral gene syncytin-1 was selected as a fusion protein to enhance fusional properties with the target cells. Its receptors (ASCT2) are found on some tumors cells, for example, colorectal adenocarcinoma. Using fusion protein, vesicles overcome the potential membrane barrier. In our iGEM project, we were focused on the sorting and targeted delivery of mRNA (GFP and b-galoxidase, reporter genes) to tumour cells. For mRNA sorting we used RNA-binding domain (N domain of gag protein), which can recognize the psi-packaging signal of the HIV1. The mRNA will be associated with the psi-signal, and RNA-construction (target mRNA+psi-signal) will be recognized by the gag protein. Currently, there are no analogs of such systems in the world, so our technology might become a breakthrough in the field of targeted drug delivery techniques.
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Chalmers-Gothenburg
Title
A tunable yeast cell factory for micro-scale production of fatty acid-derivates

Abstract
Fatty acid-based compounds act as important building blocks in many industrial processes. Currently, many of these compounds are obtained through costly and energy inefficient chemical synthesis using base oils. Vegetable oils are promising alternatives, but many of these are drivers of deforestation and biodiversity loss. Finding alternative ways to produce the building blocks that make up the products we use every single day, is a key step in the development of a bio-based economy. We propose that Saccharomyces cerevisiae can be engineered for the production of high-value fatty acid-based compounds in a tunable fashion. We aim to fine-tune reaction pathways in vivo that can be difficult to carry out using conventional chemical synthesis. By downregulating the native fatty acid synthesis and introducing a bacterial system, we can regulate the production profiles using three types of thioesterases linked to different induction systems.
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Calgary
Title
Neocycle: The development of novel REE extraction, recovery, and measurement methods from electronic waste

Abstract
Rare earth elements (REEs) possess unique physical and chemical properties that make them an essential component of many everyday technologies, such as cellphones, televisions, and automobiles. Presently, REEs are not mined sustainably, and current trends indicate that an alternate source is critical to avoid a period of REE scarcity. Neocycle is a system that works to selectively recover REEs from an underutilized source, electronic waste. First, REE extraction is necessary through the process of bioleaching, where the acid-producing organisms Gluconobacter oxydans and Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, solubilize the electronic waste feedstock. Next, REEs are recovered from the e-waste leachate through the use of the novel lanthanide-ion binding protein, lanmodulin, in an adsorption column system. Finally, the recovered REE ions are measured using one of three novel measurement systems, which are based on lanmodulin fusion proteins. Through this pipeline, Neocycle aims to provide a sustainable and more accessible source of REEs.
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Edinburgh
Title
The SuperGrinder: value from waste

Abstract
We aim to revolutionise the extraction of valuable materials from the most common recalcitrant waste polymers, including cellulose, keratin, chitin and PET. These are all resistant to natural biodegradation but hold great potential for integration to the circular economy. Current treatments are often unsustainable, requiring harmful chemicals, high energy and resulting in downcycling of materials to lower value products. Our team seeks to combine physical and enzymatic treatment of these polymers by constructing a ‘Super Grinder', featuring enzymes immobilised on silica beads using silica-binding tags. These enzyme-laden silica beads both contribute to the physical grinding mechanism and theoretically ensure that enzymes will have greater access to the substrate surface. Immobilisation may have the added benefits of improving enzyme stability and recyclability, and our design operates at ambient temperatures, decreasing its carbon footprint and cost. We also aim to improve enzyme efficiency using directed evolution techniques.
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MSP-Maastricht
Title
METHAGONE - Harnessing the Powers of Seaweed to Reduce Methane Emissions in Cows

Abstract
Over the last 100 years, the human population has exploded and so has the demand for food sources such as meat. To keep up with this demand, the number of cows has also skyrocketed. Cows have multiple stomachs, one of them being the rumen. Within it, there exists a microcosm of microorganisms of which the archaea, specifically the suborder, Methanobrevibacter, creates methane (CH4) by using the fermentation byproducts H2 and CO2. Methane, a greenhouse gas, has a global warming potential that is 28 times stronger per unit mass relative to CO2. To tackle this issue our team is producing a microbial feed additive for cows which will express a set of proteins, derived from different species of red seaweed, to inhibit the metabolic pathway of CH4 production by producing a compound called bromoform.
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North Texas
Title
Biogas to gamma-aminobutyric acid

Abstract
Methanotrophic bacteria have garnered significant interest for their biotechnology potential in the valorization of squandered CH4 obtained from natural gas and anaerobic digestion-derived biogas. Recently, it was reported that the methanotroph Methylococcus capsulatus has dual one-carbon assimilation capacity, fixing carbon dioxide (CO2), the most abundant GHG), in addition to CH4, making this an ideal biocatalyst for the conversion of biogas that consists of a mix of CH4 and CO2. The goal of this project was to engineer an M. capsulatus biocatalyst with the capacity to convert CH4 and CO2 into gamma- aminobutyric acid (GABA), a precursor to nylon-4. Two biosynthetic pathways for 1) increased flux to the GABA precursor, glutamate, and 2) GABA synthesis and export were designed, constructed, and expressed in M. capsulatus to enable GHG conversion to GABA.
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Toronto
Title
A Python Package for Machine Learning Driven Protein Engineering

Abstract
Applications of machine learning to protein engineering has progressed rapidly in the recent years. Traditional methods of rational protein design can be complemented and greatly enhanced by data-driven methods which predict function from protein sequence. We present a Python package which contains common functions used in ML-guided protein engineering. We also provide implementations of baseline discriminative models for protein property prediction from sequence and generative models for generating novel protein sequences. Finally, through a collaboration with TJUSLS China, iGEM Illinois, and iGEM UT Austin, we provide a curated dataset of PETase enzymes using which we demonstrate the prediction and generation of novel PET plastic degrading enzymes.
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NEYCFLS China
Title
ANTI-Virus

Abstract
Since its emergence in December 2019, Covid-19 has become a global threat, infecting hundreds of millions, and affecting billions. To help lower the risk of being infected while outdoors, NEYCFLS_China introduces to you: Argentum Nanoparticle Tie-dyeing Indigo against Virus (ANTI-Virus). Inspired by the traditional Chinese methods of tie-dyeing, we will use E.Coli to produce indigo, modify the indigo with silver nanoparticles, and apply the modified dye to the most outer layer of surgical masks. The masks dyed with ANTI-Virus will prevent the viruses and bacteria in the air from adhering to the masks and kill those that somehow find a way to stay on masks, all when retaining the mask's electric discharge and polypropylene network.
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SUNY Oneonta
Title
SNflaPs

Abstract
The 2021 SUNY Oneonta iGEM Team's project SNflaPs is an extension of Ca2LF, in which the goal was to develop a field deployable genetic testing system to detect the presence of the A2 allele of the beta casein (CSN2) gene. SNflaPs further explores the extent to which our method is effective in detecting single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Inspired by the needs of local farmers, the goal of this project is to demonstrate that a detection panel of SNP caused diseases is a feasible one. This is done by amplifying genomic DNA through recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) and employing a 5' flap endonuclease (Flappase) that cleaves Holliday junctions created by designed oligonucleotides with flurophore tagged ends.
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Pittsburgh
Title
Colon Detective: Tumor Diagnostics centered on Fimbrial Anchorage and Oxidative Stress Activation

Abstract
Contributing factors to high mortality rates of Colorectal Cancers (CRC) in the United States are associated with the cost and inefficiencies with colonoscopies as the initial detection method. Here we propose the development of a detection system utilizing engineered E.coli cells to produce a color change in the presence of CRC tumors and adenocarcinomas. To colonize colorectal cells, we have proposed engineering E. coli cells with chimeric fimbrial cap protein that can be anchored to surfaces. Anchoring occurs via interaction with customized antigens using a SNAP tag. We then sense a hypoxic environment in cancer cells through the oxidative stress response transcription factor OxyR. To achieve this goal, we designed and built plasmids in which OxyR promoters regulate the transcription of the B-galactosidase lac-alpha fragment. Finally, the lac-alpha released forms a complex with lac-omega resulting in functional B-galactosidase that can be used in colorimetric assays reporting OxyR mediated transcription.
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UChicago
Title
LaccXa

Abstract
Pharmaceutical pollution is a major problem that threatens the integrity of Lake Michigan, the largest freshwater lake in the world. One such pollutant is triclosan, a commonly found antifungal and antibacterial agent. While current wastewater treatment plants are able to separate this molecule from water, it is often incorporated in sludge and used as compost where it can find its way back into our waterways. That's why UChicago's iGem project hopes to create an optimized enzyme called LACCXA that can chemically degrade triclosan, thus completely eliminating this pollutant rather than physically moving it to another location. Using the laccase from the fungus Trametes versicolor as a template, we employed molecular dynamics simulations from GROMACS to analyze active site binding activity at wastewater treatment plan conditions to inform potential mutations that optimize laccase functionality.
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Lund
Title
Inhibiting curli formation via genetically engineered probiotics as a preventative remedy against amyloidogenic neurodegenerative diseases

Abstract
Amyloidogenic neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's, are expected to increase as life expectancy rises. Recent studies in rodents, correlated curli biofilms in the gut, and plaque buildup in the brain. To prevent neurodegenerative diseases, we aimed to express potential curli inhibitors via a probiotic chassi, Limosilactobacillus reuteri, and investigate the impact of the inhibitors in the presence of curli-producing bacteria. We applied gibson assembly and restriction enzyme cloning to attempt to insert our inhibitor genes into an L. reuteri expression vector. However, most likely due to our chosen selection marker, transformations were unsuccessful. During the last weeks, we successfully inserted one construct into pET11a, yet with an inconclusive expression assay. Our conclusion is that further studies of curli inhibition is required, preferably choosing a more suitable vector and chassi for expression. The connection between curli formation in the gut and amyloids in the brain also requires further investigation.
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CCA San Diego
Title
Collagene

Abstract
Collagen has countless applications, from cosmetics to supplements to prosthetics, and is useful especially in regenerative medicine as a biomaterial, constituting skin meshes, bone grafts, and artificial organs. While most commercial collagen come from bovine sources, the derivation process is both unethical and poses significant health concerns such as arsenic poisoning and zoonotic diseases. To combat these environmental and ethical concerns, as well as extend research into recombinant collagen technology, Collagene was developed, making functional triple-helical collagen for regenerative medicine. A bacterial collagen called Scl2 was expressed in yeast and E. coli via gap repair cloning in order to create a blank template of collagen that is highly adaptable to various research uses. In addition, we tested a wide variety of biomedical gels and threads that could be used during surgery or woven to replace blood vessels, developing our own wet-spinner for Collagene threads.
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Northern BC
Title
D-tector: an inexpensive, rapid vitamin D biosensor for northern communities

Abstract
The synthesis of vitamin D primarily occurs in the skin upon exposure to UV light. In northern climates with fluctuating sunlight levels, vitamin D insufficiency (< 50 nmol/L) is common. In Canada, 33% of the population experiences insufficiency. Current testing methods in northern British Columbia, Canada, are expensive, time-consuming, and inaccessible. A benchtop vitamin D biosensor that can be implemented in local healthcare facilities would address this problem. Our biosensor will detect vitamin D (25(OH)D) in a blood serum sample. The biosensor is contained in E. coli, and consists of two components: (i) 1-alpha-hydroxylase, and (ii) a chimeric protein consisting of the ligand-binding domain (LBD) of vitamin D receptor and a FRET system (VDR-FRET). The 1-alpha-hydroxylase activates 25(OH)D to 1,25(OH)2D, which has high affinity for the VDR-LBD. Binding of 1,25(OH)2D to the VDR-FRET protein results in an altered fluorescent signal.
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USTC-Software
Title
CAT : Convenient and Accurate Tool

Abstract
Nowadays, machine learning has been devoted to various areas, and has made some magnificent contribution in Synthetic biology, for example, Alphafold2 by Google, which can accurately predict the 3D structure by protein sequence, and some other models predicting the properties of protein sequence. But recently there is still lack of tools that is user-friendly and can integrate existing model and software. Thus, CAT, Convenient Accurate Tool, is designed and is based on the purpose of offering an highly-efficient software to our user. We‘ve collected some important properties of protein sequence. Moreover, we combine CAT with education and build up an education version in order to briefly introduce the models and the achievement that machine learning has done in synthetic biology. By the education version, we hope that CAT can motivate students' interest and make further contribution in the area of synthetic biology and machine learning.
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THIS-China
Title
Dental Plague Detection

Abstract
Dental plaque is an ecological environment in which bacteria grow, reproduce, decay, and carry out a series of metabolic activities. In this project, an E. coli biosensor is built to activate the phosphorylation of ComE membrane protein and ComD protein in sensor cells and activate the downstream CotA gene to cause color degradation. At the same time, we also try out different chromoproteins that directly produce the color and enable instrument-free detection. This sensor cell uses short-length peptide CSP secreted by Streptococcus mutans as a signal to detect the amount of S. mutans in the patient's mouth. To demonstrate this, contactless cell-free system hardware is designed, which the customers can use the oral rinse to collect the sample and put into our hardware to see the color is shown. The product will therefore be portable and reasonably priced, allowing more customers to have the ability and willingness to purchase.
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SYSU-CHINA
Title
CircRNA Assembly FacTory

Abstract
We choose several methods to generate rational-designed circular RNA in eukaryotic cell, prokaryotic cell and in vitro environment, respectively, with a set of RNA binding proteins, to colocalize relative metabolic enzymes and accelerate specific biochemical reaction.
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Leiden
Title
DOPL LOCK - unlock the potential of GMOs

Abstract
A major challenge in synthetic biology is the containment of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) outside of the laboratory. This includes restraining the physical spread of the organism and transfer of synthetic genes, via horizontal gene transfer (HGT). This challenge remains as regulatory bodies require sound evidence on the safety of GMOs which is difficult due to the lack of knowledge upon release. Additionally, the absence of risks is not necessarily a definitive proof of safety. Therefore, industry is unwilling to invest and scientists only rarely get permission to gather large-scale data. Here, DOPL LOCK can make the difference: we propose a mutually dependent double plasmid lock which will minimize HGT and the spread of GMOs. Our goal is to provide an open-source, standardised, modular and widely applicable Safe-by-Design biocontainment system of GMOs in non-contained applications. With DOPL LOCK, we aim to drive bio-safety innovations, accelerating the field of synthetic biology.
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Heidelberg
Title
How to train your microbiome

Abstract
With our project, we try to lay the foundations for a new therapeutic approach to treat microbiome-associated diseases. The currently used treatment, FTM, represents a severe interference with the patients microbiome. Our method should be able to treat diseases without changing the composition of the microbiome by giving it new capabilities. We use the natural competency of specific bacteria to take up DNA from their environment. Our idea is to deliver transforming DNA into the intestine to be taken up by these bacteria. Our drylab team processes microbiome 16s rRNA data to find natural competent bacteria. In the laboratory, we performed natural transformation of Acinetobacter baylyi. Additionally we tested the efficiency of phenylalanine lyase and demonstrated that it degrades phenylalanine in gut microbiome related bacteria species. Furthermore, we discussed novel natural selection advantages because antibiotics are no possibility in a patient. Between certain sugar catabolism, beta-glucosidase was the most promising.
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Nanjing NFLS
Title
Antibiotics Killer

Abstract
Residual tetracyclic antibiotics in the environment is a real problem of ecological and human health relevance that has emerged in recent years, and there is an urgent need to develop efficient and convenient technologies for the efficient degradation of tetracyclic antibiotics (aureomycin). We found that microbial fuel cells (MFCs) can degrade aureomycin by Fenton reaction through modification of the cathode. At the same time, to improve the degradation rate, we aim to localize a biofilm to the cell anode as biofilm activity is closely related to the efficiency of microbial fuel cells. By overexpressing the quorum sensing system in the electricity-producing bacteria, we greatly improved the efficiency of the fuel cell and thus the degradation efficiency of aureomycin.
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UMaryland
Title
PhosphoREUSE

Abstract
Our neighboring Chesapeake Bay is frequently subjected to harmful algal blooms caused in part by excess phosphorus pollution. This type of pollution threatens aquatic habitats, biodiversity, and even the livelihoods of humans. However, current phosphorus remediation techniques do not prioritize reclamation and reuse of phosphorus, a nonrenewable resource. By genetically engineering E. coli to contain key phosphorus metabolic genes from the phosphorus-accumulating organism, Microlunatus phosphovorus, UMaryland iGEM set out to develop PhosphoREUSE, a phosphorus recycling system that can uptake, store, and release phosphorus. To facilitate easy use of our sequestration units, our genetic constructs are housed in a bioreactor system that is user-friendly and affordable. In order to ensure the efficacy of our design and its usefulness to our community, our team engaged with experts in the area and stakeholders who may want to utilize our system to detect and decrease unhealthy levels of polyphosphates in bodies of water.
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ECUST China
Title
Magic Blue

Abstract
Phycocyanin is a kind of rare natural blue pigment and has a broad development and application prospect. It has great value in food, medicine, reagent,cosmetics and other fields. But phycocyanin is limited by it's high cost and instability. In order to improve the stability and cut down the cost of production of phycocyanin so that it can obtained more widely used. We--ECUST_China invented‘magic blue'. Using dual-plasmid-system to rebuild the metabolic pathway of producing phycocyanin in the host of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In brief, our experiment includes three parts: Firstly, the construction of the expression pathway of phycocyanin. Secondary, the regulator part of the expression vector. Thirdly, improvement of the thermal stability using site-directed mutagenesis.Through our project, we can make the phycocyanin get easy access to our daily life and benefit us..
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IISER-Pune-India
Title
SynBactory - Recycling carbon dioxide for biomanufacturing using a co-culture of cyanobacteria and E. coli

Abstract
Fossil fuels are the primary contributors to greenhouse gas emissions, making chemical synthesis based on petrochemical feedstocks unsustainable. Photoautotrophic microbial biomass is a promising alternative to produce renewable carbon feedstocks for chemical synthesis. We have cultured previously engineered cyanobacteria, S. elongatus UTEX 2973, which can recycle carbon dioxide as secreted sucrose. Parallelly, we have engineered butanol-producing E. coli KJK01 to consume sucrose as a carbon source. Growing the two organisms together in a co-culture would allow for a sustainable, single-step, single-pot conversion of carbon dioxide into biobutanol. Our in silico models probed the stability and dynamics of the co-culture system to identify optimal conditions for the production of butanol. We used genome-scale metabolic models to identify key gene deletion and overexpression targets to improve butanol and sucrose yields. Furthermore, we designed constructs to characterise the strengths of native promoters to boost sucrose secretion in cyanobacteria.
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TU-Eindhoven
Title
Non-Invasive Monitoring of IBD using Genetically Engineered Bacteria as Living Sensors

Abstract
Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the intestine. Globally over 6 million people suffer from IBD, and this number keeps rising. The current monitoring procedure for this disease lacks specificity, resulting in unnecessary follow-up examinations that are invasive, expensive, and time-consuming, which calls for an alternative procedure.Our solution, IBDetection, consists of a pill that can be ingested orally by the patient and delivers live, safe, genetically engineered Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) to the intestine. These bacteria include a biorthogonal sensing cascade to detect tetrathionate—an inflammation biomarker—with high specificity, and in turn activates translation of acoustic reporter genes, resulting in the formation of gas vesicles in the bacteria. These gas vesicles can then be measured outside of the body using conventional ultrasound equipment. This method provides a cost-effective, easy-to-use solution to rule out unnecessary follow-up examinations in a specific and non-invasive manner using fast imaging methods.
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Hopkins
Title
Symbiotic Bacterium Engineering for Treatment of Coral Disease

Abstract
Corals are threatened by human activity as they are the victims of rising ocean temperatures and habitat destruction. Certain species are also impacted by infection from pathogenic fungi—one fungus in particular, Aspergillus sydowii, can cause the “localized mass mortality” of Gorgonian corals, commonly known as sea fans (Kim and Rypien). Previous iGEM projects have approached the issue of coral bleaching with the aim of preserving corals. Our goal is to engineer bacteria to fight Aspergillus infection of corals with minimal impact on other aspects of the ecosystem. We plan to engineer symbiotic bacteria (Endozoicomonas euniceicola) common to the affected coral species (Gorgonia ventalina) to secrete antifungal peptides after detection of an infection. As part of our proposed implementation we have developed a quorum sensing cell death circuit to be used in conjunction with hydrogel beads. This project is supported by feedback from stakeholders including NOAA, the Smithsonian, and Hopkins APL.
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Virginia
Title
Manifold: Protein Shells with Encapsulated DNA Scaffolds for Increasing Efficiency of Biosynthetic Pathways

Abstract
Utilizing prokaryotic, biosynthetic processes to produce pharmaceuticals and commercially valued organic compounds provides a safer, greener, and more cost-effective alternative to traditional chemical synthesis. Unfortunately, metabolic flux imbalances along with biosynthetic pathway-chassis interactions complicate metabolic engineering and stymie an industry-scale shift to biosynthesis. To mitigate these complications, we have designed a platform technology known as Manifold that sequesters and spatially organizes synthetic, zinc finger-bound enzymes on dsDNA scaffolds inside bacterial microcompartments. Here we detail our progress toward a resveratrol-producing, proof-of-concept device built using the Manifold framework, and present adaptable models which further the utility of Manifold to metabolic engineers. Through the application of Manifold, the process of metabolic engineering is greatly simplified, marking a major step toward a less expensive and more sustainable means of global chemical production.
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SYSU-Software
Title
Phoebus

Abstract
Currently, there lack of approaches to precisely control the bio-chemical process in target cells. Non-neural optogenetics is promising, but there is no universal workflow for designing a fusion protein. So we present a new workflow for designing the so-called “opto-controllable elements” which is build with three basic parts: opto-switch, linker, and target protein, and build a software platform to automatically perform this workflow. The core module of our software is called opto-controllable elements designer, it has a database that collect detailed information about natural opto-switches, a linker database, a structure predict algorithm, and a protein activity evaluator. Theoretically, with opto-controllable element designer, every bio-chemical process can be controlled with light. We also build two supplementary modules based on the core module, one for controlling cascade reaction rate with light, and one for controlling gene expression level with light.
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SCU-China
Title
Vibrio natriegens "Marionette": Achieve strict and subtle gene regulation in Vibrio natriegens

Abstract
Vibrio natriegens can propagate in 10mins and has been applied in metabolic engineering, protein production as well as other fields. Until now, no efficient strategy for gene regulation on V.n has been developed. In our project: Vibrio natriegens "Marionette", we develop a new strategy for strict and subtle gene regulation aiming at promoting the use of V.n in synthetic biology. By introducing artificial promoters, insulators, UTRs, controllable ORI and Marionette collection, we build a golden-gate-based part collection, which enables strict and tunable gene expression in V.n. Furthermore, we engineered miniature CasΦ(751aa) and AsCas12f1(422aa) taking high sensitivity of V.n to burden caused by protein expression, to achieve efficient CRISPRa and CRISPRi of multiple genes. We also explore the possibility to build incoherent feed-forward loops (iFFLs) by Cas protein. Our strategy showed a fantastic performance in the regulation of VioABCDE cluster and production of flavoind.
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HiZJU-China
Title
EE2limination——Elimination of EE2

Abstract
The synthetic estrogen 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2) is a micropollutant with strong endocrine disrupting effects. Due to the large-scale use of estrogen in contraceptives and feed as well as the shortage of effective degradation method, EE2 is accumulating in water environment and will induce serious diseases. Our project aims to solve the EE2 pollution problem. We designed genetically modified bacteria to degrade EE2 via cometabolism in waste water. In order to detect EE2 concentration accurately and quickly, we developed a synthetic biological cascade amplification reaction based on yeast two-hybrid technique, which can easily co-relate the content of EE2 with portable readout, such as cell growth and fluorescence intensity.
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IISER TVM
Title
Engineering Chimeric Chitinase with Enhanced Antifungal Activity

Abstract
Opportunistic fungal infections like mucormycosis, aspergillosis, and candidiasis have ravaged immunocompromised patients battling multiple comorbidities. Tackling these infections has been difficult due to a limited repertoire of expensive antifungal drugs and their side effects. Moreover, the rampant use of these limited numbers of drugs raises the alarming possibility of developing drug-resistant fungal strains. Chitinases are potent natural biocontrol agents against fungi. We aim to engineer chimeric chitinases with a specific combination of different chitin-binding and catalytic domains from wild-type chitinases that will have increased anti-fungal activity. The antifungal enzymes thus synthesized could be developed into effective therapeutic agents against invasive fungal infections.
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Istanbul United
Title
Ecolgae (E.coli & Algae)

Abstract
The issue of heavy metal pollution in aquatic systems is a very serious problem for both our future and present. This problem manifests itself in different ways all over the world. Although it affects the food chain and the life cycle negatively; the studies carried out until today, including methods where external intervention is mandatory, could only provide a temporary solution to the problem. We aim to reduce the percentage of heavy metals in water by using gene transfer methods and gene cloning, without disturbing the natural balance. This is possible by a system that will be added to the natural habitat. In this project, we studied how to use the bioremediator properties of algae without causing eutrophication. Based on this idea, we obtained transgenic E.coli which contains the heavy metal removal genes of algae. With our study, we as Istanbul United, can reduce heavy metal pollution permanently.
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AHUT China
Title
Breast cancer-targeting bacterial microrobots

Abstract
Breast cancer has overtaken lung cancer as the most frequently diagnosed cancer according to Cancer Statistics 2020. Expression of HER2 leads to poor prognosis in 30% of breast cancer. Though there are effective approaches for targeting HER2 such as trastuzumab for breast cancer patients, it is often associated with toxicity and resistance. New treatment strategies are, therefore, urgently needed. In this project, we decided to modify the probiotic E. coli Nissle 1917 to induce the expression of the HER2 artificial antibody and sTRAIL fusion protein in hypoxia, which can kill cancer cells. We demonstrated that sTRAIL fusion protein with trimerization structure could induce apoptosis in HER2-positive breast cancer cells. The modified strain with hypoxia-inducible promoter could express the fusion protein in low oxygen environment and induce apoptosis of breast cancer cells. Our result suggests that the probiotic we designed and engineered would be a potential novel treatment for breast cancer.
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IISER Berhampur
Title
CODE-M : Cas Optimised DEvice for MDR-TB detection

Abstract
In our project, we aim to make a rapid molecular diagnostic kit for early detection of TB and MDR-TB. Our diagnostic kit will first detect the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the sample via LAMP colorimetric assay. Along with detecting the presence of TB, it will also provide DNA fragments for mutation analysis for MDR-TB detection. Studies have shown the formidable ability of Cas14 to detect SNPs. We intend to use this property to detect the key MDR-TB mutations through specially designed guide RNA. The gRNA will act against the selected genes and analyze the results by detecting the fluorescence triggered by Cas14 complex. We propose to use an integrated hardware device for detecting the fluorescence emission which will also give the final diagnostic report. Our ultimate goal is to reduce the cost of diagnosis and provide a point-of-care system and make our kit accessible to most of the patients.
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The Webb Schools
Title
Lighthouse - Fighting Against Depression with Genetically Constructed Plasmids

Abstract
Depression, a common mood disorder that brings sadness and emptiness to people, often remains untreatable and requires a treatment method with minimal side effects to alleviate the pain of patients. Current treatment methods of depression are either ineffective or have side effects on patients' physiological functioning. Through bioengineering, our team presents a novel method to reduce the severity of depression and, as our name indicates, brings light to patients' dark world. We inserted efeB, a gene that can reduce oxidative stress, into a constructed plasmid and placed the gene into bacteria for more effective treatment purposes. Tests show that bacteria with constructed plasmid can suppress the level of MDA under 20 mmol/mg and can survive better than the bacteria without this plasmid under high hydrogen peroxide condition. Our team believes that our product can bring effectual treatment to depression.
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Think Edu China
Title
Debiotics

Abstract
The increasing in antibiotics resistance slowly become a global concern. While, conventional methods to degrade antibiotics like high temperature composting, fermentation and microbial degradation had relatively low efficiency and high costs. More effective methods are urgently needed to cease this global issue. Our group had invest in the field and found out that the whole Cell Biocatalyst Ecn-IL, which is renowned for its practicability, strong stability and low-resources demand, can be a favorable solution to the mentioned issue. Firstly, the utilization of the Ecn-Il can effectively avoid the accumulation of the antibiotics in animals. Without the mountainous usages of antibiotics, the tolerability can be largely reduced, thus the formation of the super-bacteria can also be avoided. With the technology of cell surface display (EcN-IL), the Laccase gene lacc6 be displayed on the surface of Probiotic Escherichia coli, Nissle 1917 (EcN), can be used to degrade antibiotics residues.
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TU Darmstadt
Title
PHIRE BYRD - Phage mediated Immune Response by Recognizing Defensive Sleeper Cells.

Abstract
Biofilm formation is an important characteristic of many bacteria, which enables them to survive under harsh conditions. Nowadays, biofilms are essential for a variety of industrial applications such as food fermentation or wastewater treatment.This year, our team is working on a self-defensive biofilm to protect it from pathogen invasion. We will biologically engineer our biofilm prototype chassis Bacillus subtilis to automatically sense pathogens threatening the biofilm via quorum sensing (QS) signalling molecules. The PHIRE BYRD gene circuit will trigger the production of lytic bacteriophages in presence of pathogens. The phages will then selectively kill the pathogenic bacteria while being completely harmless to humans, hence providing a powerful alternative to antibiotics. Finally, our complementary QS based kill-switch will protect our system from unintentional release of GMOs into the environment. By building on synthetic biology principles of modularity and standardization, our self-defensive biofilm system will be easily expandable to multiple pathogenic bacteria.
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LZU-HS-CHINA
Title
NANO'S Eagerness(Nano-Se)

Abstract
Selenium is an essential element of human body. It plays a role to maintain body health, boost immunity, resist cancer, poisoning heavy metal and oxidation. However, Se is in deficiency in large areas, which has caused health problems among more than 1.1 billion people. The lack and the excess of this element both cause health problems. The existing preparation methods of Se are unstable and not safe enough. Thus, micro-biosynthesis of SeNPs, which is easy to absorb, is a way to use this mineral efficiently and safely. In our study, the new found selenite reductive SerV01 expressed in Staphylococcus aureus LZ-01 can convert Se (IV) to SeNPs, which has the potential to be used as a booster for the production of selenium supplements.
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Hong Kong HKU
Title
Co-culturing PET-degrading and sucrose-dependent E. coli with sucrose-secreting S. elongatus

Abstract
HKU iGEM team is developing a self-sustaining and solar-driven bioreactor that digests PET by utilising the symbiotic relationship between the bacteria Escherichia coli and the cyanobacteria Synechococcus elongatus. In the co-culture, E. coli (Strain BL21-DE3) is engineered to express PETase and MHETase enzymes, as well as absorb sucrose secreted by S. elongatus as its energy source. The enzymes facilitate the degradation of PET into its monomers - terephthalic acid and ethylene glycol, which can then be repurposed in the creation of new bioplastics to maintain a circular and greener supply chain.
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UZurich
Title
BOOM-V: engineered bacteria-originated (outer) membrane vesicles as a novel plant protection strategy

Abstract
Crop loss caused by phytopathogens is a severe threat to world food security. However, the extensive use of synthetic pesticides has led to toxicity and resistance emergence. Here, we propose an alternative solution to combat pathogens, by using bacterial membrane vesicles to boost plant immunity. We first screened for strains producing large amounts of highly immunogenic outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). By displaying immune elicitors on the surface of OMVs, the protective immune response can be further enhanced. Meanwhile, we also designed bacteria to function in situ, which can sense pathogens and automatically generate OMVs to prime plants. In addition to OMVs, bacterial cytoplasmic membrane vesicles (CMVs) are engineered to deliver cargoes (e.g., DNA) into plant cells. Our results show that engineered bacterial membrane vesicles can improve disease resistance, as well as other agronomic traits of plants, which might open the door for a new era of biopesticides and biostimulants.
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SMS Shenzhen
Title
GUM OVER

Abstract
As one of the most popular groceries, chewing gum is stuck on the table, bench, and street because of irresponsible disposal. Primarily made up of ethyl-vinyl acetate, polyisobutylene and polyisoprene, they are not water-soluble or easily degraded. Removal is generally achieved by steam jet and scraper, but the process is slow and labour-intensive. Other environmental and health problems could also be caused by discarded gum.This year, SMS_Shenzhen aims at fighting against chewing gum. We focus on LCP and laccase in wet lab, expressing them and improving them by directed evolution and rational design. In dry lab, our modelling project optimizes laccase's enzyme activity and verifies the improvement quantitatively. Outside the lab, we conduct stakeholder interviews to collect suggestions for our hardware design. We also organize all-aged education, including lectures and an art exhibition, to raise the public's awareness of protecting the environment and introduce the audience to synthetic biology.
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Shanghai United
Title
ASeeker: Arsenic Biosenser

Abstract
As a non-metallic element, arsenic has a very important use in industry. But equally, its harm to the human body is also very huge, even causing cancers. So what we need to do is find a more efficient way to detect the presence and the amount of arsenic around us. In this case, we design to combine the arsA, arsD, and arsR genes to make up the ARS operon pattern which could respond to the presence of arsenic. Afterward, we use green fluorescent proteins to 'ring' the alarm by glowing. We hope our project could promote the public awareness of arsenic threat and provide a better solution to detect arsenic.
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Shanghai high school
Title
Application of Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis in Oral Rotavirus Vaccine

Abstract
A new oral vaccine against rotavirus can help children get antibodies against rotavirus in a needle-free way. It can enter the child's body in the form of oral liquid, capsule, drink, etc. The oral form can facilitate rotavirus patients' treatment and prevent children from developing resistance. In this project, the construction and characterization of the plasmids for oral rotavirus vaccine production were completed in order to prepare the target vaccine. Genes for the β subunit of the heat-labile enterotoxin (LTB) from E. coli and the immunodominant outer core protein VP7 were cloned and expressed as a fusion protein. After being introduced into Bacillus subtilis, the plasmid could recognize rotavirus and express antigens LTB-VP7 successfully. This work here set the stage for the future development of the oral rotavirus vaccine
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SHSID
Title
Dual biosynthesis of putrescine through the yeast by reconstructing the plasmids

Abstract
Tropane alkaloid-derived medicines are under supply shortage, but growing demand. The extraction of putrescine from plants was time-consuming and low yields, which is seen as a vital limiting factor of tropane alkaloids production. Our project aims at genetically modifying yeast to efficiently produce putrescine in large quantities. On one hand, we designed to introduce the spe1gene to over-express the enzyme that catalyzes the reaction producing putrescine from ornithine. On the other hand, we also introduced two other genes, AsADC derived from oats and speB derived from E. coli which could produce enzymes catalyzing the reaction producing putrescine from arginine. All above will make the yeast a factory to continuously biosynthetic putrescine to support tropane alkaloids production.
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NOFLS YZ
Title
IBD Distinguisher: Detecting IBD in a new way - Tetrathionate-Nitrate Test

Abstract
During our survey on the way of detecting IBD, we found that there are several distinct defects of them: harm to the body, expensive, restricted to specific people. We are now hoping to find out a way that can make us easier to detect this kind of disease. Therefore, we are working on the development of a new diagnosis way called the Tetrathionate-Nitrate Test. We will construct an engineered probiotic which could be sent to the patient's stomach with the sugar-coated and detect the presence of these two kinds of chemicals: Tetrathionate and Nitrate, the marker of IBD. This will trigger the probiotics to produce fluorescent substances when detecting both makers. As a doctor, IBD could be diagnosed by checking if there is the fluorescent phenomenon in patients' excrement which is fast, convenient, and precise.
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ECNUAS
Title
Silent Spring: Cell-free Atrazine Biosensor

Abstract
Atrazine is commonly used as a herbicide for production and distribution but harm to human body. Our team is working on the development of a portable, efficient and inexpensive cell-free biosensor that can detect the Atrazine derivatives through fluorescent color. To achieve our final goal, we firstly constructed a Recombinant E. coli in order to veryfy our design and we would further explore the cell-free experiments to improve the applicability and functionality of our biosensor.
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Beijing United
Title
Construction of the engineered S. cerevisiae that Breaks Down Wheat Starch-B for Alcohol Production

Abstract
Due to COVID-19, the demand for alcohol products has increased a lot, mostly for medical use, and this lead to the increase of the market price of the medical alcohol, as a result, some people not able to afford medical alcohol. One way we thought could solve this problem is to use the gene-editing method to edit the yeast when fermenting wheat starch, that way it can accelerate the efficiency of the process when producing alcohol. We edit the genes of xylanase, β-xylosidase, and acetyl-xylan esterase into the yeast, therefore the gene edited yeast can process these three enzymes by themself. Each kind of enzyme's role is to break down the polymer of carbohydrate chain in the starch, so the yeast can use the monosaccharides to produce alcohol. Overall, The gene-edited yeast could reduce the cost of alcohol production and take advantage of wheat B starch.
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WFLA YK PAO
Title
PEToracity: Intestinal probiotics to digest microplastics

Abstract
PET is a clear, strong, and lightweight plastic that is widely used for packaging foods and beverages. Because microplastics are not digested by living organisms, they will be accumulated inside human body, causing uncertain harm. Actually, chemical traces of plastic particles have been found in human organs and tissue. Therefore, we focus on the constrcution of the genetically engineer probiotics to produce the IsPETase and MHETase, two enzymes that could break down PET and degrade the micro-plastics in the human digestive tract.
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Shanghai HS United
Title
FlavoneLabRouse: Engineered probiotics to degrade and absorb flavonoids

Abstract
Flavones are widely found in plants. They are pharmacodynamic compounds and have been widely used in the treatment of cancer and various diseases. Unfortunately, for some people, it's hard for them to digest certain kinds of flavones, which is detrimental to their health. In this project, we put FLR gene into E. coli to produce a strain secreting FLR enzyme. The strain degrades flavonoids to produce DAT and stimulate the immune system to achieve the purposes of anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and anti-cancer. Through this project, we hope to help those people assimilate certain flavones and improve their physical state.
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Shanghai city
Title
Based on the 5-HT theory to explore new solutions against depression

Abstract
We decide to take two pathways to explore solutions for curing depression based on the 5-HT theory. On the one hand, we intend to construct in vitro RIN14B cells, which function similarly to EC cells responsible for the secretion of 95% of 5-HT in the human body. Electrophysiological experiments will be carried out on RIN14 cells to screen out compounds that could effectively stimulate RIN14B cells for the preparation of anti-depression drugs in the future. On the other hand, we also plan to recombine the Escherichia coli system, which could secret TPH and TDC enzyme to further exogenously synthesize 5-HT with tryptophan as the transformation substrate. This work is aiming to prepare engineered probiotics to ease depression. We hope to help patients who suffer from different levels of depression through this project.
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Fujian United
Title
Alpha Luco - Development of a new S. cerevisiae to self-secrete glucoamylase

Abstract
In the fermentation method widely applied in ethanol production, glucoamylase is an essential raw material, which accounted for a lot of costs. Our project aimed to develop the Saccharomyces cerevisiae in order to self-secrete glucoamylase, thus, reducing the cost also improving the fermentation efficiency. In the lab, we started off by constructing 4 plasmids, pYES2-ctl, pYES2-TGC, pYES2-HGC, and pYES2-IGC, with different promoters, respectively by Golden Gate Cloning and then transformed them into the yeast. After selection by several enzyme activity tests and fermentation performance tests, we finally obtained the expected engineered yeast and hope our work will contribute the alcohol manufacturing in the future.
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Xiamen City
Title
Pecteast: the construction of the functionable wine yeast to directly degrade pectin

Abstract
Pectin will cause impurity and lower the texture of fruit wine, which leads to unfortunate sales. Moreover, the discouragement of pectin during fruit wine production has a negative impact on the environment that goes against the UN sustainable development goals. Therefore, we use the CRISPR-Cas9 technique to insert part of the pectinase gene into the yeast gene to form yeast with the function of decomposing pectin. By using this multi-functional yeast, the pectin in fruit will be decomposed during the fermentation of fruit wine. And the multi-functional yeast is going to be filtered out at the end of the fermentation.
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Nanjing high school
Title
Discovery of PPM1A activator against neurodegeneration diseases based on inflammatory regulation strategies

Abstract
Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease, etc. are called neurodegeneration diseases that have caused thousands of degenerated elders and even youngsters, and have become a major social issue. These neurodegeneration diseases are caused by excessive inflammation. Currently, there is no efficient method or medicine that can be applied to cure or effectively ease these diseases. Here, our project presents a novel target- PPM1A, which is a kind of protein phosphatase for medical usage that can prevent and ease inflammation response. The PPM1A activator can be used to repress the expression of certain genes through dephosphorylation in the microglia to prevent it from turning into M1 type. In our work, Compound 5 was demonstrated as a PPM1A activator and its anti-inflammatory effect was determined. We believe implementing Compound 5 into medical usage will provide a more efficient and effective way to prevent neurodegeneration diseases.
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まとめ


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