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iGEM2020全チームプロジェクト概要 ~第三弾~

本記事では、iGEM 2020年に参加した全チームのプロジェクトについてまとめた記事の第三弾になります。(全四回を予定しています)。
iGEM 2020では、どのようなテーマがあったのか網羅的にわかるようになっておりますので、ざっと眺めて見てはいかがでしょうか。

第一弾はこちらから
iGEM2020全チームプロジェクト概要 ~第一弾~
[翻訳版] iGEM2020全チームプロジェクト概要 ~第一弾~


第二弾はこちらから
iGEM2020全チームプロジェクト概要 ~第二弾~
[翻訳版] iGEM2020全チームプロジェクト概要 ~第二弾~


※本まとめは、全てのデータをiGEM2020のオープンなデータから取得しております。

データの見方

(例) チーム名(チームページリンク付き)
タイトル
要約
Wikiへのリンク

このような構成で、全チームをまとめていきます。

チームリスト


Shanghai HS
Title
Combining PhoA and eGFP to Create a Biosensor that Detects Phosphate Concentration Rapidly

Abstract
Phosphorus pollution is the leak of phosphorus compound into water, which causes serious problems to people's health. Complicated technologies have already been invented to test the purity of water, however, those procedures always cause huge amount of money and energy. We found that a certain gene activity in E.coli will be inhibited with the presence of phosphorus. As a result, combing with a fluorescent protein, the gene will show its reaction when encountering certain concentration of phosphorus. Using this strategy we will be able to conduct pre-test of water pollution before investing much money and energy on processing unpolluted water. And through editing the gene, we will be able to detect water sources' phosphorus concentration that will harm human health by an easy and inexpensive method. We expect our experiment to become the starting point of detecting water pollution through biological method.      
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HZNFHS Hangzhou
Title
biological/inorganic hybrid catalysis system for CO2 conversion

Abstract
CO2 is the main greenhouse gas causing global warming. Using renewable electricity to reduce CO2 to chemicals is a sustainable strategy for greenhouse gas mitigation and renewable electricity storage. To overcome the disadvantages of CO2 electrochemical reduction with inorganic catalysts, developing a biological/inorganic hybrid catalysis system for efficient CO2 conversion is promising. In this study, lycopene will be obtained in the hybrid catalysis system by combining electrochemical hydrogen evolution reaction and biological CO2 conversion with genetically engineered Ralstonia eutropha. In this hybrid catalysis system, bacteria can use CO2 and H2 as substrates to produce lycopene. As a result, CO2 can be transformed to valuable chemicals with electricity input and renewable electrical energy derived from wind and solar energy can be stored as chemical energy simultaneously. 
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SCU-China
Title
RNAlphABA

Abstract
Late spring cold (LSC) is a common climatic phenomenon in many areas of the world, which refers to the sudden appearance of continuous low temperature after the weather warms up in middle of spring. Every year, LSC causes huge agricultural and economic losses through freezing the bud of crops. Currently, spraying abscisic acid (ABA) is the main way to deal with LSC. However, chemically synthesized ABA usually contains by-products and toxic waste, while purified ABA is expensive. Therefore, we hope to give a new application to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, so that it can synthesize ABA before the onset of LSC, and develop a software to predict degree of LSC. In addition, in order to solve the deficiency of eukaryotes' monocistronic gene expression system in the field of exogenous product biosynthesis, we develop a new application of the CRISPR-Csy4 system in the construction of eukaryotic multicistronic exogenous gene expression system.
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FAFU-CHINA
Title
Design an integrated fermentation system with Juncao as raw material

Abstract
This year, we want to use Juncao to make bioethanol. We designed an integrated fermentation system that consists 3 chassis (E. coli & K. Marxianus & Pichia Pastoris) and the control elements that link them. The biosensor based self-regulation is realized by sensing the changes in the concentration of various intermediates during fermentation. Through the above design, each reaction stage can be organically combined without interference. In addition, we also want to modify the fiber corporeal through rational design of proteins, so that it has the ability to break down the structure of cell wall, and finally achieve the effect of degrading lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose.
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CCA San Diego
Title
Acefate: Degradation of the Pesticide Acephate Using Genetic Modification

Abstract
The bio-degradation of the insecticide acephate using genetically modified Escherichia coli is studied in this project. Acephate exposure causes severe environmental and human side effects as well as paralysis or death. In this study, we enriched samples of acephate-treated soil for 5 weeks to propagate the growth of acephate-degrading bacteria. 10g from each sample was diluted 10-fold. DNA was subsequently extracted from bacterial colonies using the genomic etNA extraction and the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced. Degradation was monitored with HPLC and LC-MS. Certain genes, such as OPD, were isolated and analyzed using bioinformatics tools including CDD. Amplified genes were inserted into base plasmid pMMB206 using restriction digest protocol into E. coli K12. BetI, a transcription factor-based kill-switch, was added to the plasmid. While experiments could not be performed, MATLAB modeling and literature indicate the approach provides an effective pathway, with >99% degradation of acephate and all harmful intermediates.
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LINKS China
Title
PICACHU: PIlin Constructed nAnowires production CHassis Unlocking

Abstract
Electronic conductive pili (e-pili) is an electricity conduction material produced by microbes, which has been proved for its electricity production in humid environments. Recently, various e-pilis were discovered but not suitable for large-scale production due to the severe cultivation conditions and bio-safety concern. This year, LINKS_China designed PICACHU, an E.coli chassis to express different e-pilis. We manufactured a pili-generator consists of 12 genes for pili assembly, expressed three pilins, and created a new measurement to verify the pili production. Furthermore, we renovate the generator and optimize the growth condition of the cells to increase the yield. Ultimately, we transformed the e-pilis product into a nanowire battery and expect it to provide sustainable clean energy. We are aiming to apply PICACHU to track migrant birds, to monitor the wetland, and to trace the trash flowing movement in the ocean. Hopefully, more possibilities of e-pili application will be explored in the future.
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UNSW Australia
Title
PROTECC (Prevent Reactive Oxygen and Thermal Extreme Caused Carking) Coral

Abstract
Home to three-quarters of the world's coral population, Australia's Great Barrier Reef (GBR) is experiencing its third bleaching event in five years. With increasing ocean temperatures, coral reefs and the ecosystems that depend on them are at risk of serious, irreversible damage. Coral bleaching is a result of heat-induced oxidative stress, which triggers the ejection of corals' microalgal-symbiont Symbiodinium spp. PROTECC Coral aims to improve the heat tolerance of coral by introducing small heat shock proteins alongside a glutathione recycling enzyme system into Symbiodinium spp., in order to reduce cellular stress. By engaging in conversations with various stakeholders (tourism industries, local councils, bioprospecting practices, commercial and recreational fishing and the GBR's traditional owners) and integrating their advice, our team hopes to contribute to a worldwide conservation effort that enables future generations, both Australian and non-Australian alike, to enjoy the GBR in its entirety.
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Imperial College
Title
SOAP Lab: Automating DNA Design & Assembly

Abstract
DNA assembly is a vital first step in most synthetic biology projects. As genetic design spaces become larger with more complex genetic circuits and greater diversity of parts, the ability to construct sizable genetic libraries with high accuracy in a cost and time-efficient manner is imperative. While automation is an attractive and increasingly affordable solution, programming remains a technical challenge for many wet-lab scientists. To make automated workflows a practical reality, we developed SOAP Lab, an open-source web UI that infers genetic circuit designs from SBOL data files and customizes an assembly plan based on the user's specifications. This is then used to generate ready-to-run scripts for the liquid handlers, along with set-up instructions and logs for traceability and debugging. SOAP Lab is integrable into larger software pipelines through the use of SBOL data standards, empowering labs with access to a wider suite of tools available for computer-aided biology.
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XHD-Wuhan-China
Title
Mars-PhD: decrease Mars soil pH with Deinococcus radiodurans

Abstract
Phosphorus is an essential element for plants. Martian soil, while rich in phosphorus, is still unable to sustain a growing plant because the insoluble phosphorus cannot be absorbed directly by plants. Some microorganisms can secrete organic acids, decrease pH and promote dissolution of insoluble phosphates. Considering the higher radiation level on Mars, in this project we choose Deinococcus radiodurans (DR) as our chassis organism. We transformed DR by cloning gcd gene from Escherichia coli to promote dissolution of insoluble phosphates. Glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) and Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) genes are constitutively expressed in DR to form holoenzyme to realize the conversion of glucose into gluconic acid. To improve efficiency, we also transformed a synthesized gabY gene into DR to promote the binding between GDH and PQQ to increase the activity of GDH. We hope to provide new solutions to transform martian soil and explore the possibility of growing crops on Mars.
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HK SSC
Title
Production of PdRp-CBD complex for recovery of palladium from palladium ions

Abstract
Palladium is widely adapted in industrial processes such as catalytic converters or ceramic capacitors. It also holds biomedical applications such as acting as a drug carrier and is utilised in cancer treatment. However, palladium is an environmental pollutant and difficult to be recycled.In this project, twenty-five palladium(II) reducing peptides (PdRp) are modified from a selection of known palladium binding peptides. The PdRp are fused to a cellulose binding domain 3 (CBD 3) derived from Clostridium thermocellum which acts as an affinity tag. The PdRp-CBD complex is expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) in pETBlue-2 vector and purified using regenerated amorphous cellulose (RAC).Peptide-Palladium interactions are determined by computational methods of Molecular Dynamics.Downstream analysis and further experiments will be performed to determine the efficiency and performance of the PdRp with potassium hexachloropalladate.
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WHU-China
Title
The Negotiator

Abstract
We aimed at rationally engineering probiotics to address the problem of nosocomial infections in respiratory tract, especially ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) during COVID-19 pandemic. The chassis of our project was Escherichia coli Nissle 1917, recognized as the most amenable probiotic, and the target pathogen was Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a representative nosocomial pathogen notorious for its quorum sensing-based virulence behaviours. We constructed two modules to endow our chassis with the capability as "the negotiator": (i) Quenching Module: heterologously overexpressing quorum quenching enzymes to parley with "criminals" (P. aeruginosa) by degrading AHLs; and (ii) Sensing Module: sensing PQS and excreting appropriate amounts of chemokines to recruit "police squads" (immune cells) for eradicating pathogens. Notably, we leveraged E. coli lysate-based cell-free system for rapidly prototyping genetic parts of interest, in order to accelerate the design-build-test-learn cycle of our project as well as to give insights into the elegance of cell-free expression renaissance.
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IIT Roorkee
Title
Pyomancer: Super specific combat system against superbugs

Abstract
Hospital Acquired Infections are the main cause of most of the ICU deaths and it's imperative to build alternative solutions to treat Bacterial infections and break the wall of antibiotic dependence. Our project provides a narrow spectrum treatment for the Multi-Drug Resistant Bacteria, A. baumannii, through the engineering of naturally found elements, namely, Bacteriophage and Pyocins. Pyocins, as produced by P. aeruginosa, provide single-hit killing kinetics. These are engineered to retarget their specificity by the fusion of a tail fiber of the AP22 Phage (specific to A. baumannii). We have conceptualised a modular system, that can be used to produce a portfolio of designers proteins against the bacterial species we wish to target. Our work also includes the development of a software which computationalizes the protein design process and are applying interesting Machine Learning algorithms to predict which genes are responsible for imparting resistance & susceptibility to strains of bacteria.
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Moscow-Russia
Title
Genomus – a preconceptional screening system of four most frequent and almost incurable autosomal-recessive diseases

Abstract
Autosomal-recessive diseases, such as cystic fibrosis, phenylketonuria, galactosemia and sensorineural hearing loss affect thousands of people worldwide. There's no widely-available treatment for these diseases yet.We consider that the best way to give birth to a healthy child is proper pregnancy planning and genetic screening before the conception.During the iGEM 2020 season, our team has developed Genomus – a preconceptional screening system which is capable of significantly reducing the amount of autosomal-recessive mutations in the human population. Genomus consists of three parts:1. Laboratory where we collect and proceed blood or saliva samples and perform genotyping;2. Secure database with over 1500 potential parents' genotypes, website and mobile application with algorithms of genotypes comparison using QR-codes for authorized comparison access.3. User-friendly notification & pregnancy planning guidance system. The main idea of Genomus is to integrate genetic screening in pregnancy planning programms, make it popular and avaible for everyone.
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XH-China
Title
Keratinase Skin Product

Abstract
Applying synthetic biology, our team addressed several skin concerns by devising a gentle skincare product. Compared to the traditional way: either chemical peeling or physical rub, we applied enzyme keratinase to safely exfoliate the skin. Our products, based on thorough research and empirical applications, guarantee the gentleness, exfoliating excess cuticles without destroying the skin barrier. A series of skin issues, like dryness, itching, and redness, will be, therefore, greatly relieved.
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Austin UTexas
Title
PhastPhage

Abstract
Bacterial contamination of drinking water is a huge problem worldwide, causing 780,000 deaths on average each year. With PhastPhage, we intend to create a phage-based biosensor for detecting the presence of E. coli contamination in water sources. Using the stoichiometric gene expression simulator Pinetree, we modeled the genome of bacteriophage T7 in order to determine how we could engineer it to produce large amounts of GFP and shorten the time it takes to lyse bacterial cells during an infection cycle. We determined that the most effective way to achieve this was to place a GFP gene, as well as move a holin gene responsible for lysis proteins, into the genome adjacent to gene 10A, which encodes for a major capsid protein and has the highest level of expression of all of T7's genes. In the future we hope to engineer phage with these changes and confirm our model's predictions experimentally.
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Toulouse INSA-UPS
Title
iGEMINI, a coculture for food supplements production in space

Abstract
Space exploration drives us further away from Earth and will lead to year-long space travel. Some essential nutrients, such as vitamins, cannot be stored on the spacecraft since they rapidly lose nutritional value over time. iGEMINI aims to supplement astronauts' food with nutritional and tasty yeast supplement. We designed a quasi-autonomous coculture between the acetogen bacterium Clostridium ljungdahlii and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This system uses minimal resources which are currently considered as waste on spacecraft. As a proof of concept, the yeast has been engineered to produce provitamin A, an essential vitamin for human health. Since astronauts' tastes are altered by physiological changes in their body, we give them the choice to choose their favorite flavors by using optogenetic systems. Our project builds new bridges between space research and microbiology, and multiple efforts have been done to promote space synthetic biology as a truly promising and exciting scientific field.
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Korea HS
Title
Design and characterization of hyperstable cell-penetrating scFv targeting RAS

Abstract
Antibodies are being developed as therapeutic agents. However, the targets of currently used antibodies are restricted to cell surface proteins due to their inability to go into the cell and maintain their function in the reducing environment of the cell. We have chosen a hyperstable single chain variable fragments(scFv(P5)) as a scaffold and this antibody was engineered to recognize human RAS protein by changing residues in the antigen-binding site(scFv(RAS)). We attached cell-penetrating peptide to the N-terminus to develop an antibody that can go into the cell(CPP-scFv(RAS)). We cloned, expressed, purified, and tested if CPP-scFv(RAS) works as designed. The development of antibodies that can work inside the cell will dramatically broaden the range of target molecules and the diseases that can be treated with therapeutic antibodies.
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SYSU-Software
Title
Maloadis (Machine Learning based Optimization and automated Design Platform with Image Search)

Abstract
Synthetic biologists lack an integrated circuit design platform featuring DBTL (design, build, test, and learn) workflow. Many steps in the design can be automated to enhance efficiency and smooth their work. Besides, the massive data of genetic circuits and parts are not fully utilized. To address these problems, we create Maloadis, an integrated automated genetic circuit design platform. Maloadis implement automated top-down design with GeneNet algorithm, and is capable of designing and rating possible genetic circuits according to users' requirements. It also exploits the abundant information provided by genetic circuit images by extracting parts and structures from them to search for related previous work through trained neuro network. To improve success rate in wet-lab experiment, Maloadis predicts gene expression level with integrated models, and offers suggestions to shorten experiment cycle using Bayesian Optimization algorithm. We present Maloadis as a de novo approach to facilitate synthetic biology design automation. 
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ASTWS-China
Title
When Microplastics Meet Biofilms: Enhanced Degradation of Environmental Plastics by Biosorption

Abstract
Microplastics from household waste are easily entered into our water system, which is one of the most difficult environmental pollutants to degrade. The newly developed biodegradation technology can effectively degrade highly polyester contaminants, such as PET plastics, which can be efficiently degraded using PETase. On the other hand, biosorption can effectively collect microplastic particles. Therefore, in this study, we hypothesize that genetically enhanced biofilms can promote PET microplastic degradation through the proximity effect of the enzyme and substrate, thus benefiting future environmental governance applications.
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Worldshaper-Shanghai
Title
New non-invasive technique for early stage prostate cancer diagnosis

Abstract
The most common clinical diagnosis nowadays for prostate cancer is digital rectal examination,serum PSA test and prostate biopsy, which, to some extend, is invasive or can cause physical discomfort. The goal of Worldshaper-Shanghai 2020 is to develop a new non-invasive technique for early stage prostate cancer diagnosis, mainly by expressing the color variation of the tested urine since urine test could be the simplest, painless and rapid test method for prostate cancer diagnosis.Our equipment design combined the technology of reverse transcription, gene amplification (PCR/RPA) and RNA hairpin structure (Toehold switch), to detect the specificity of RNA biomarkers of prostate cancer in the urine (PCA3 and KLK3), the final red fluorescence protein output will be report as visible results, so as to achieve the purpose of our visual diagnosis of prostate cancer.
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Worldshaper-Nanjing
Title
Turning Waste into Treasure: Reuse of Substandard Grains as Fermentation Substrate to Produce Biodiesel

Abstract
Substandard grains, such as long-term stored grains, cannot be eaten due to the existed toxin and contaminants. Therefore, these grains attracted much attention as the fermentation substrate. Meanwhile, the biodiesel attracted increasing attention as a promising biofuel to replace fossil diesel for the last two decades. In this work, Yarrowia lipolytica has been selected as the model host for biodiesel production. Taking into account the disability to degrade the raw starch of Y. lipolytica, we separately express heterologous alpha‑amylase and glucoamylase enzymes in it. The results showed that the strains expressing glucoamylase were able to grow on starch as the sole carbon source. By optimizing the C/N=100, the total lipid content increases up to 21 % of DCW, which sets up the basis for further studies. In the future, we aim to provide a practical, economical, and environment-friendly method to treat substandard grains and produce biodiesel.
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Paris Bettencourt
Title
SynDerma : a foundational advance toward synthetic dermatology

Abstract
In SynDerma we envisioned therapeutics being administered by engineered microbes integrated into the skin microbiome. First, to understand the perturbaility of the skin microbiome by individual habits such as hygiene, social interaction and exercise, which are all affected by this current unprecedented context of COVID-19 pandemia, we developed a community science project called Quaranskin. In Quaranskin we developed an at-home sampling kit, protocol and survey, where participants swabbed four body sites for metagenomic analysis. We correlated the diversity and composition of these collected microbiome data to behaviours noted in the surveys to uncover any trends. In parallel, we chose the skin commensal microbe Staphylococcus epidermidis to be a chassis for our future vision of microbial therapeutics enabled by synthetic biology. In projects EpiFlex, EpiGlow, and EpiGrow, we built a MoClo kit, expressed fluorescent proteins as a proof of concept, and optimised growth conditions, respectively.
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Waseda
Title
Zombie vs Samurai -Strategic struggle in cell-free systems-

Abstract
Cell-free systems are a flexible, quick, and powerful tool in synthetic biology that enables us to conduct back and forth the lab experiments and modeling. In order to continue our project under restricted lab access by COVID-19, We conducted projects (modeling and wet experiment, education, entrepreneurship) with cell-free systems. The modeling is based on the struggle between Zombie and Samurai.Zombies attack humans and turn them into zombies. On the contrary, humans help zombies and return them to humans. In modeling, completion of the system was achieved by adapting the quorum sensing systems.We have confirmed working quorum sensing systems in the cell-free system. It's important to know the smell to distinguish between Zombie and Samurai.We have created multiple monoterpene (Limonene, Sabinene) from glucose in cell-free systems.Finally, we are attempting to make gene circuit of model of these story.
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HKUST
Title
Green textile system: Biodegradable hagfish slime intermediate filament and non-toxic chromoprotein-based dye for fabric production

Abstract
The conventional textile industry is causing noxious pollution to the hydrosphere. Non-biodegradable Synthetic fibers, such as nylon, are causing microplastic pollution. While chemical dyes discarded in factories' sewage are mostly poisoning to aquatic lives.In view of the issue, our project targets to replace these fibers and dye by producing recombinant hagfish slime intermediate filaments (IF) with a chromoprotein dyeing system. A novel protein purification approach is also designed as an industrial solution.The hagfish slime IF is a competitive candidate to replace the polluting man-made fiber. While being biodegradable, it possesses outstanding mechanics that outscore Kevlar. When compared to other developing alternatives, like spider dragline silk, its simpler protein architecture facilitates the production process.We also developed an eco-friendly dyeing method for our threads. By fusing non-toxic chromoproteins to the IF, they can grant a wide range of vivid colors for the fabric, making it a viable clothing material.
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IISER-Pune-India
Title
Anopheles: The Half-Blood Princess

Abstract
The WHO estimated that 228 million people contracted Malaria globally and 405,000 people died from it in 2018. Our project aims to develop a library of inhibitory peptide drugs against certain essential human parasite protein interactions; resistance to current antimalarial therapeutics is on the rise. We intend to use cyclotides as stable protein scaffolds for these peptides.Using in-silico modelling, our dry lab team has designed short peptides that will potentially inhibit the protein interactions crucial for the invasion and survival of malaria parasites inside a human host. Our wet lab team has designed various experiments to clone and express the interacting host and parasite proteins, characterize the drug and reduce the toxicity of the grafted cyclotides.To address issues related to poor diagnostics, we have developed a diagnostic tool using convolutional neural networks which will be able to identify patients with malaria based on images of their blood smears.
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Duesseldorf
Title
Mossphate: Yesterday's wastewater can fuel tomorrow's crops

Abstract
Phosphate is an essential element that fulfills diverse cellular functions in all living organisms. It is a key limiting factor of plant growth and therefore used for the production of fertilizers. However, phosphate is a non-renewable resource and its natural reserves are dramatically decreasing, while the growing world population has led to a growing demand of phosphate fertilizers.Our project is to accumulate phosphate from wastewater and reuse it for the agricultural sector using the moss Physcomitrella patens. The moss has been genetically engineered to accumulate phosphate in the form of polyphosphate granules through the introduction of polyphosphate kinases and additional phosphate transporters.With these modifications, we hope to provide a sustainable way to filter phosphate from wastewater and grow phosphate-rich moss plants. These mosses can be directly used as fertilizer to provide crops with recycled phosphate.
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Shanghai United
Title
Degradation of P-cresol by Engineered Probiotics in treatment of Chronic Kidney Disease

Abstract
Uremic toxin p-cresol sulfate (pCS) accumulate inside the kidney due to Chronic Kidney Disease, further exacerbating harm. We aim to engineer probiotics that can be consumed by patient, express the target gene into enzymes to degrade p-cresol, the precursor of pCS. Since p-cresol is produced from phenylalanine and tyrosine in diet, we created tyrosine inducer gene, which controls the expression of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) – enzyme that can degrade p-cresol. This system was tested with the Green Fluorescent Protein gene on the p15A linear plasmid. We extracted the pchC – pchF – pchA operon gene segment from Pseudomonas citronellolis and connected onto the p15A linear plasmid skeleton to assist PPO with degrading p-cresol under oxygen-deficient environment (intestine). Lastly, the plasmid was converted onto E.Coli Nissle 1917, an edible and harmless probiotic, while High Performance Liquid Chromatography was used to examine the ability of our finished product in degradation of p-cresol.
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Shanghai HS United
Title
Be Friends with Galactose—Build a probiotic to transform galactose into beneficial acids

Abstract
Saccharine diseases troubled humanity for thousands of years since we started to expand our diets. In China, the number of affected patients already towered over 100 million and still rising. We wanted to help relive patients with galactosemia, one of the saccharine diseases with the highest prevalence rate and detrimental influence. Our team came up with an innovative idea which is to engineer a probiotic with the function to decompose galactose into butyric acid, a useful short chain fatty acid. We engineered three different plasmids, each with its own capabilities that is essential for galactose breakdown. Using a competent E.Coli Nissle 1917cell, we transfer the plasmids into the cell, creating our final product. Eventually, the probiotics was successfully engineered in the laboratory. We plan to produce it as a health-care beverage product after analyzing over 400 pieces of survey and suggestions from experts in medicine and milk industry.
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MRIIRS FARIDABAD
Title
Li-Koff: To Detect and Degrade N-Nitrosamines

Abstract
N-Nitrosamines are group of compounds formed from the reaction between nitrites and secondary and tertiary amines. Majority of these compounds are known to be potent carcinogens. They are found in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, processed meats, alcoholic beverages, cigarette smoke, suspended particulate matter (spm) etc. But, their presence in potable water post disinfection stage in water treatment plants is most alarming; as their formation depends upon temperature and pH and not on the precursor molecules forming them. Quantifying them through conventional techniques of LC/MS, GC/MS, HPLC, etc., is time consuming, labour intensive and an costly affair. Hence, li-koff pitches in as an alternate synbio solution for an easy detection and estimation of these compounds in water samples. Further, it also degrades some of these compounds upon detection.
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CLS CLSG UK
Title
Project CocEels

Abstract
As a school located on the banks of the River Thames in London, we are focussing on the impact of cocaine upon the critically endangered European Eel, Anguilla anguilla. Concentrations of cocaine as low as 30 ng/L have been shown by studies to have detrimental impacts upon their migration and breeding patterns. In addition to this, high drug concentrations have even been detected in drinking water in countries such as Brazil due to lack of effective filtration systems. We aim to solve this problem by using genetically modified E. coli bacteria immobilised in the primary sedimentation tanks of the sewers. We also designed a novel, hypoxia induced toxin-antitoxin kill switch which will destroy our bacteria in the presence of standard anaerobic processes in wastewater treatment plants and hence prevent our bacteria from spreading into the wider ecosystem. 
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TU Kaiserslautern
Title
Microdestruction

Abstract
Micropollutants are a massive concern in wastewater treatment, as their accumulation can seriously impact ecosystems. Anti-inflammatory medications such as Ibuprofen or Diclofenac are primary examples of micropollutants becoming an ever-growing problem through patient overuse and relaxed disposal practices. Laccase has been shown to chemically deactivate Diclofenac, leading to functional degradation. Different laccase genes (MarLac, from uncultivated marine bacteria, and BaLac, from a mutant Botrytis aclada) were cloned into both our control bacterium, Escherichia coli, and primary organism, the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Produced laccases would be incorporated into a bioreactor set up. Our project will use synthetic biology in an innovative and cost-effective way to produce a self-sufficient system. We want to reduce the need for specialized and still experimental equipment with easy integration into existing sewage treatment plant systems. It is our vision to create a cost-effective and efficient approaches to a cleaner and healthier environment.
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Brno Czech Republic
Title
CYANOTRAP

Abstract
CYANOTRAP is a synthetic biology system developed to lyse cyanobacteria and degrade their toxins. The host bacterium Bacillus subtilis will be immobilized on a cellulose matrix in a flow through device. It will also produce a collection of extracellular protein complexes attached to its cell wall based on the naturally occurring structures called cellulosomes. These structures will display enzymes carrying out the functions mentioned above. In the first step of our project, we aimed to immobilize the engineered cells on cellulose microbeads. For this we used a synthetic gene containing a cellulose binding module connected by a linker to LysM domain, anchoring the fusion protein to the cell wall of the host organism. We've carried out a number of experiments including cloning of the synthetic gene into a target plasmid, integrating the plasmid into the chromosome of Bacillus subtilis, cultivating the engineered cells, producing and testing the synthetic protein.
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KEYSTONE A
Title
Bacterial cellulose-based living Gaoyao for arthritis treatment

Abstract
In this aging society, arthritis haunts 355 million people around the world, but we still have no radical cure for it. Inspired by “Gaoyao” (an active patch with medical properties) in traditional Chinese medicine, we aim to tackle arthritis by designing a living Gaoyao. Its matrix is bacterial cellulose, a biomaterial with excellent biological compatibility and physical properties. It is embedded with engineered mammalian therapeutic cells harboring a modular genetic circuit, which contains: (1) a sensor with (2) an amplifier to detect trace amounts of inflammation signals at the early stage; (3) an effector that can secret antagonists of pro-inflammatory cytokines to suppress inflammation, BMP2 to activate skeletal stem-cells, and glucosamine to provide building blocks for cartilage; (4) a safety switch, enabling people to externally control the system. It can provide long-term treatment for arthritis, which not only suppresses inflammation before damages and pains arise, but also promotes cartilage regeneration.
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GreatBay SCIE
Title
ShroomSweeper

Abstract
We produced ALFA (Aptamer Lateral-Flow Assay), an efficient, membrane-based test kit for amatoxins. Replacing antibodies with aptamers - a type of oligonucleotide - in LFIAs (Lateral Flow ImmunoAssay), several drawbacks that antibodies present (low heat stability, heavy reliance on immunogenicity of target molecules, etc.) are eliminated.Simultaneously, we developed a sandwich assay involving both aptamers and antibodies, combining the benefits of using either ligand. scFvs (Single-Chained antibody Fragments) have simpler structures and can be made through regular protein synthesis procedures, while conventional processes involve the mammalian immune system.Applying ELISA (Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay) to our design, we immobilize purified scFv onto the ALFA pad, then coat our samples - amanitin - onto the scFvs. BSA-conjugated aptamers are then coated to the amanitin. Hopefully, this test kit will assist in identification of common species of poisonous mushrooms, reducing cases of poisonings worldwide.
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SHSBNU China
Title
Strangle locust plague at birth

Abstract
Locust plague is a harmful disaster, because gigantic locust swarms can eat crops and cause food crisis. However, the existing prevention measures are expensive and not environmentally friendly. Locust plague is mainly caused by the colonizing locusts, while the scattered locusts need to be initiated by serotonin and guaiacol to form colonized locusts. Therefore, we proposed a design to allow E. coli to express four enzymes to degrade serotonin and guaiacol in the intestines of the locusts. To enhance the degradation efficiency, we introduced a self-lysis system in E. coli to allow the enzymes release to the intestinal lumen of locust, which helps ultimately disturb the swarming behavior of locust and avoid the occurrence of locust plagues. For biosafety, we have also introduced a heat-induced suicide switch, which allows E. coli to commit suicide in response to the summer heat when the plagues are reduced.
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GZ HFI
Title
P-Erfume: Engineering Probiotics to Reduce Intestinal Undesirable Odor

Abstract
The unpleasant odor of farting leads to social embarrassment. Besides, patients who undergo enterostomy are confronting social distancing because of the acrid smell released from the stoma on their bellies. To solve the problems above, We genetically engineered probiotic Escherichia coli to decrease the production of main molecules that contribute to intestinal acrid smell (ammonia and hydrogen sulfide) and produce an aroma substance (myrcene). We mutate argA into argAfbr and knockout argR to enhance the conversion of ammonia into arginine, create several mutants of cysE gene to promote the conversion of hydrogen sulfide into cysteine, and construct a three-plasmids-system to produce myrcene. The result shows we significantly improved e.coli's ammonia production and cysteine synthesis; myrcene was produced successfully in relatively low production. For human practices, we did a series of activities (survey, expert visits, collaboration, exhibitions, lectures, etc) to improve our product design and promote the education of synthetics biology.
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GreatBay SZ
Title
BIOT

Abstract
The Greatbay_SZ 2020 team aims to develop a moisture-driven energy harvesting device utilizing biotechnology: BIOT. The core of BIOT is engineered-protein filament nanowires, which spontaneously generate and maintain electric potential energy. We optimize BIOT's cost and power supply performance by mutating the pilA gene (of protein monomer) and RBSs. For future implementations, our team plans to provide a stable power supply for IoT (Internet of Things) devices. BIOT is the first application of biotechnology in the IoT field. Its advantages in low environmental restrictions, green and environmentally-friendly materials, stable power generation, long power-harvest duration, low cost, and large-scale applications will promote further global IoT development.
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Beijing 4ELEVEN
Title
Acneutralizer

Abstract
Acne vulgaris troubles teenagers and sometimes adults as it not only affects the skin but also self-confidence. Traditional treatment to acne vulgaris involving antibiotics may trigger drug resistance in acne pathogenic bacteria, especially Propionibacterium. acnes. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are considered excellent alternatives of antibiotics for their capability of providing effective, broad-spectrum defenses against infections and exhibiting relatively low potential to elicit resistance. However, AMP curing products nowadays are not abundant, and most AMPs are produced via chemosynthesis, a rather costly method incapable of yielding AMPs with great antimicrobial potency. Therefore, we aim to create an anti-acne product which consists of biosynthesized P. acnes killing AMPs, adhesive/cohesive proteins, and tyrosinase. The mixture which we named Acneutralizer forms a thin film when applied to acne-infected skin. This product may be brought to market, helping acne sufferers improve their conditions by easily killing P. acnes.
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TPR China
Title
Locust Master

Abstract
Locust plague has been one of the devastating disasters to humans and the environment. Both chemical and biological pesticides were widely used, but because of the rapid movement and unpredictability of locust swarms, these methods are costly and cause serious environmental problems. We designed a rapidly deployable locust attraction scheme, the core of which is to synthesis specific locust aggregation pheromone 4-Vinylanisole to attract locusts and prepare for further rapid and effective eradication in the attraction area. Furthermore, an engineered bacteria which can degrade phenylacetonitrile was successfully created, avoiding its interference to the trapping effect. Through synthesis of 4-Vinylanisole and degradation of Phenylacetonitrile, locusts are “attracted” together and the site-specific control of locust swarms is realized. Our project provides a more environmentally friendly and greener way to kill locusts in the future. 
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EPFL
Title
EspressEAU: test your water

Abstract
Water is an essential resource that we regularly use for drinking, cooking and food processing. Hence, it is important to ensure that it is safe for consumption. EspressEAU serves as an analysis of general water quality. We aimed to create a safe, low-cost, and easy-to-use system that can enable on-site testing of water at home or in small communities. We hypothesized that genetically engineered yeast could be used as biosentinels by hijacking the yeast stress response pathway using either deletion strains or fluorescent reporter strains that are sensitive to water contaminants. These biosentinels are grown in a DIY system with temperature control, stirring, and two optical detectors for fluorescence and density, allowing us to monitor growth and fluorescence of the yeast, and thus detect the presence of contaminants in the water sample. We hope our project will facilitate frequent water testing of local water sources.
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UCL
Title
PETZAP: Integrating enzymatic PET degradation into Microbial Desalination Cell technology

Abstract
The world's oceans are suffocating from an annual addition of 8 million tons of plastic which threaten marine ecosystems and exacerbate water scarcity affecting over 2 billion lives. Our project aims to tackle these two global challenges by integrating enzymatic polyethylene terephthalate (PET) degradation into a Microbial Desalination Cell (MDC). The system involves a 2-step process co-culturing engineered E. coli to express a PETase-MHETase fusion degrading PET and P. putida to achieve further degradation and produce lactate, which then supports the biofilm growth of exoelectrogen, S. oneidensis, generating bioelectricity for desalination. Desalination efficiency was maximised by optimising lactate secretion, co-culture design, and MDC configuration based on the results from flux balance analysis (FBA) and agent-based model, simulating bacterial plastic degradation and bioelectricity production, respectively. Insights for further technical optimisation and feasible implementation at large scales were obtained through iterative engagement with experts and stakeholders. 
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SDU-Denmark
Title
PROSTATUS

Abstract
The current procedures to test for prostate cancer (PCa) in Denmark are all either based on invasive tests or based on the presence of the prostate specific antigen (PSA). The doctors must take a small biopsy of the patient's prostate or let the patient undergo a digital rectal exam. Our team decided to develop a risk assessment for prostate cancer, that makes use of the CRISPR-Cas13a system. We focused on three mRNA biomarkers found to be present in the urine of PCa patients, specifically TMPRSS2:ERG, AMACR and PCA3. We also conducted interviews with end-users and initiated an email correspondence with experts from different fields to discuss and gain insight on how to improve our project. Apart from this, we designed a set of playing cards and a card game that takes early detection as a theme and was distributed to different social areas to spread PCa awareness.
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JNFLS
Title
Bacterial cellulose applied for making mask

Abstract
Now there are more than 200 million nonbiodegradable masks abandoned to the environment every day due to the pandemic novel coronavirus. We are trying to make a new antibacterial and color-changing mask using bacterial cellulose which is biodegradable. And its translucency is very benefit for facial recognition without taking off the mask.
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Fudan
Title
Bone appetite: make calcium supplements sustainable

Abstract
In Asia, many old people suffer from insufficient calcium intake and related diseases such as osteoporosis. Considering that traditional calcium supplementation is not efficient and user-friendly enough, we intended to develop a kind of engineered bacteria based on E. coli that can colonize in the human intestine and secrete peptides to promote calcium absorption. We introduced the quorum sensing system to colonize bacteria in the intestine. Once the bacteria have successfully colonized the intestinal tract, the luxpR promoter will be activated and a series of short peptides that can bind to calcium and promote calcium absorption of intestinal epithelial cells will be expressed. A kill switch is added accordingly for safety. Our project provides a novel delivery method to provide calcium supplements sustainably. And we are actively seeking commercialization possibilities to expand our project impact, to reach more population, for the elderly's good health and well-being.
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UZurich
Title
Plant Immunity based Biosensing

Abstract
Bacterial contamination in water is a global issue that affects developing nations and first world countries. Even Switzerland, famed for its drinking water, faces over 400 cases of Legionnaires disease annually. But plants have been combating microbial pathogens for far longer than humans and we believe there is a lot to learn from them. That is why we are developing a biosensor based on plant pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs), which are cell surface receptors of the plant immune system, that dimerize in the presence of microbes.We designed a system based on EFR, FLS2, CORE and their coreceptor BAK1, which recognize a broad spectrum of bacteria. We fused a split-luciferase to our receptors in order to quantify the total bacterial load of a water sample based on the luminescence-output. We achieved the expression of PRRs in yeast, which opens the door to future applications of PRRs as biosensors.
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NEU CHINA
Title
Rapid detection of environmental Covid-19 using genetically engineered Ace2-PmrA-PmrB system

Abstract
Traditional detection of environmental Covid-19 employs quantitative PCR method, with a minimum turnaround time of 6-hour. Here, we developed a rapid protocol, in which the presence of Covid-19 S protein is readily detected by genetically engineered Ace2-PmrA-PmrB system. In our work, we recombined the PmrA-PmrB two-component system derived from Salmonella to the surface of E. coli, and replaced the Fe(III) recognition site of PmrB with the core region of human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2),which could recognize the surface spike glycoprotein (S protein) of SARS-CoV-2. Upon recognition, the downstream signal pathways and the reporter gene are activated. Furthermore, an amplifier (Hrp regulatory machinery) and extra cytoplasmic function (ECF) σ factor were used to improve the sensitivity of the biosensor. A TEV protease-based post-translational regulation system to reduce the leakage is also used. In summary, our system shortens the time frame and reduces the cost and lab labors for detection.
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UPCH Peru
Title
CrioPROT: An innovative solution for crop loss due to frost

Abstract
In the Peruvian highlands, frosts during the winter cause crop damage leading to significant economic losses for small and medium scale farmers, perpetuating their already vulnerable condition. Our team wants to approach this problem by bringing an innovative solution.We aim to develop a system of production of an antifreeze agent which has a protective capacity in frost-susceptible crops, administrable by spraying. This product consists of a solution of recombinantly expressed and purified antifreeze proteins (AFPs). Our core genetic designs comprise the sequences of three types of AFPs, of plant and insect origin, with inducible and constitutive promoters, and a peptide signal for secretion to the culture medium. The chassis we have selected is a psychrophilic bacteria of the Pseudoalteromonas genus in order to guarantee an efficient work at low-temperature settings. In this way, our system will be capable of producing AFPs in low-tech environments in frost-affected regions.
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UC San Diego
Title
BACSYGEN: BACteriotherapy via SYnthetic GENomes

Abstract
Despite cancer being one of the leading causes of death, successful treatment remains a challenge due to the heterogeneous nature of tumors. While a multitude of treatment options exist including chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and immunotherapy, they all have significant limitations and have prompted the development of alternative therapies such as bacteriotherapy. While certain bacteria have shown great therapeutic potential, different bacteria are involved in unique tumor suppressing pathways, and as a result, a combination of various tumor-suppressing bacteria have been shown to achieve the greatest efficacy. However, these microbes require genetic modification to lower potential toxicity and eliminate any side effects on normal cells. Our team proposes a classification algorithm to first classify whether a bacteria affects a tumor-resisting pathway, and then feeding this information into our Generative Adversarial Network to create a synthetic bacterial genome with multiple tumor-suppressing features while also being clinically significant.
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ROADS SY
Title
Rice Arsenate Accumulation Reduction

Abstract
Thanks to hybridization and genetic modification, rice sustains a huge proportion of the world population. However, arsenate accumulation poses a severe threat to the rice-consuming population, who are generally unaware of the threat and unable to deal with it. We decided to lower the arsenate accumulation of rice by identifying and modifying the genetic sequence related to the arsenate level. Specially, we adopted both the conventional method and the bioinformatic method to identify the related genetic sequence. By doing so, we intended to promote the fusion of bioinformatics and bioengineering. The assumption is that Ospt4 is responsible for the arsenate accumulation of many crop species, including rice. We planned to knock out the genetic sequence and perform contrast experiments to examine whether Ospt4 is related to arsenate accumulation.
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Virginia
Title
Manifold: Protein Shells with Encapsulated DNA Scaffolds for Increasing Efficiency of Biosynthetic Pathways

Abstract
The lack of a versatile and reliable way to improve metabolic flux channeling, pathway orthogonality, and product yields is a major impediment to the expanded utilization of biosynthesis for the production of drugs and industrially valuable chemicals. Manifold, a platform technology that addresses this problem, consists of bacterial microcompartments (BMCs) with encapsulated dsDNA scaffolds that sequester and spatially organize, at fixed concentrations, biosynthetic enzymes presented as zinc-finger fusion proteins. Here we deliver the designs for an E. coli cell capable of synthesizing resveratrol using the Manifold platform. The Manifold platform will help lower costs and expand the applications of chemical biosynthesis. 
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UCopenhagen
Title
CIDosis - Just Sweat It! Developing a Biosensor for Monitoring Chronic Inflammatory Diseases

Abstract
Chronic Inflammatory Diseases (CIDs) are debilitating diseases affecting three out of five people worldwide. Optimal treatment requires constant monitoring, but current testing methods are invasive, time-consuming, and costly. CIDosis strives to change this with a non-invasive patch for self-monitoring. Backed by extensive computer modeling, we are developing a biosensor that continuously collects sweat from the skin, and produces a color reflecting the level of inflammation. The biosensor in our patch is based on Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells equipped with interleukin-specific receptors that will associate in the presence of interleukins, resulting in the intracellular complementation of a split protein. A transduction pathway is then triggered, leading to the production of a color, whose intensity is logged by an app and shared with a medical professional. By integrating the wishes of patients living with CIDs, as well as experts within these fields, CIDosis brings a next generation tool for patient empowerment.
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GW DC
Title
BactoLEAD the Way to Cleaner Water

Abstract
Lead is a heavy metal that can contaminate potable water through lead pipes, solder, paint, and household fixtures. This potentially fatal heavy metal is a neurotoxin that accumulates in soft tissue and bones, leading to neurological disorders. In 2017, exposure to lead caused one million deaths worldwide. Current water filtration solutions are effective; however, they are not affordable, sustainable, or renewable. Our team is genetically engineering a bacteria that naturally filters lead to have biosensing properties, allowing easy detection of lead ion levels in solution by monitoring lead operon activation for lead filtration. The modified bacteria will express fluorescent proteins that allow us to visually monitor lead ion concentration sustainably and affordably. Our goal is to provide a user-friendly, accessible lead detection and filtration device to ensure safe drinking water globally.
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Lund
Title
Protecto - A biopesticide production system for preventing late blight in potatoes

Abstract
We have designed a system for producing antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and attempted to demonstrate that it is functioning. Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and pET-11 is used to produce a cocktail of AMPs with either Thioredoxin A or Glutathione S-Transferase as a fusion partner, that will be cleaved by recombinant Enterokinase carried by another plasmid in the same cell. After AMP and subsequent protease expression, we will trigger the already developed Deadman kill switch and sonicate the cells in order to make sure that no live genetically modified microorganisms will be present in the product and that the AMPs are free in the solution. The resulting product is a cell extract containing soluble AMPs, which will serve as a biopesticide. We have also developed a computer model that generates and evaluates peptide sequences based on their potential as antifungal agents.
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Hainan China
Title
CHLORIS:Coral HeaLth bOost and Reinforcement In Symbiosis

Abstract
Coral reefs are secret gardens under the sea. Accelerated anthropogenic CO2 emission has led to elevation of surface temperature and acidification of the seawater. Symbiont Zooxanthellae cells are then expelled by corals, leading to coral bleaching. If the coral reefs remain bleached, they would proceed to eventual death, and destruction of the marine ecosystem. Hainan_China aims to develop a nutritional enhancement strategy to safeguard coral reefs against the devastation by coral bleaching. We plan to introduce synthetically engineered “probiotics” to stimulate coral microbiota for sustainability of Zooxanthellae-bacterial interaction and viable metabolic functioning of the coral systems. The probiotics would enable production of nutrients, such as N, P, Fe, and Vitamin B12 to nourish the coral symbiosis against environmental stresses. We will then design and fabricate a microfluidic chip to study in-depth the coral-Zooxanthellae symbiosis for large scale applications.
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Lethbridge
Title
FriGEM ® Engineering Potatoes to Express Antimicrobial Peptides for Agriculture and Human Health

Abstract
Fusarium is a fungus causing dry rot in potatoes on the field and during storage. We want to express AMPs within the potato plant to provide a biological control of Fusarium. We also want to engineer E. coli to produce the desired AMPs instead and apply them on the plants/tubers.This would have the advantage that the potatoes are not GMOs.Additionally, we want to address human health and the negative perception of GM food. We want to produce AMPs that also enhance the potatoes nutritional value and health effects. AMPs useful against Fusarium may also have effects against human pathogens, making their ingestion beneficial. One example is the bovine AMP BMAP-18, which has antimicrobial effects against trypanosoma, the cause of sleeping sickness. By creating GMOs with beneficial effects for consumers, we hope to alleviate the stigma of GM food and increase its public acceptance.
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Warwick
Title
An early detection system for bowel cancer based on the presence of colibactin derivative

Abstract
Colon cancer worldwide affects over 1.80 million people with approximately 862,000 deaths each year. Recent scientific literature highlights a correlation between colon cancer and the presence of colibactin in patients' bowels, produced by Escherichia coli found in the colon of 20% of people. Therefore, to aid early detection we will develop a better diagnostic tool for the detection of colon cancer reliant upon modifying a DNA-binding protein. By engineering the transcriptional repressor MmfR of the TetR family, the binding of a colibactin derivative will prevent the binding of our new protein to DNA. The ligand-binding pocket of MmfR will be modified in-silico to ensure it accommodates a colibactin derivative - N-myristoyl-D-asparagine - instead of its native ligand. Specific amino acids mutated within the MmfR protein will be identified. Finally, the engineered protein will be overproduced and isolated. We expect resulting engineered proteins to be accurate and precise biosensors for colibactin.
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AUC-EGYPT
Title
A SynBio-based SARS-CoV-2 therapeutic solution: orchestrating inducible interference using virus-like particles, toehold riboswitches and siRNAs.

Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic is without doubt the biggest health crisis of the 21st century. Currently, there is no specific treatment or vaccine for the disease. In this phase-I project, we propose a SynBio-based therapeutic solution for COVID-19. Our approach consists of a SARS-CoV-2-like particle that is capable of targeting cells expressing the ACE2 receptor. Upon delivery, our sensing moiety (Toehold Riboswitch adjusted for mammalian systems) is constitutively expressed. If SARS-CoV-2 triggers are present within the cell, the sensor will unfold initiating a GAL4-VP16-dependent interference pathway. Consequently, we designed two de novo siRNAs that play a critical role in our antiviral therapeutic approach. They inhibit viral replication via RISC-mediated degradation of the replicase region of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA. We also created a deterministic model to predict the levels of siRNAs as well as a structural model to predict the thermodynamic stability of our toehold riboswitches. 
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まとめ

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大変多くのチームが、オリジナリティ溢れたプロジェクトを行っていることがわかっていただけたかと思います。本記事では、iGEM2020に出場したチームの1/4ほどのチームしかとりあげられておりません。さらに興味をもっていただいた方は、その他のバージョンも参考にしていただけたらと思います。

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